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Tuesday, February 20, 2018

7 Prime liabilities of a Civil Site Engineer in a Building Construction Project

A site civil engineer takes lots of responsibilities as per the company’s rules and structure of the project management team. Given below, the complete liabilities of a civil site engineer :-

1. Accomplishment of the project in due course: The key liability of the project management team is to deliver the project in scheduled time. A site civil engineer has also to take this liability as he is the part and parcel of the project management team.

To accomplish a building construction project timely, a project management team has to take responsibility to make a “master Schedule” for the project. In this regard, the project manager should take the sole liability.

It is necessary to create the master schedule on the basis of the company’s rule. Now, the monthly and weekly target of the project will be determined on the basis of master schedule.

If it becomes easier to monitor each construction task on weekly basis, there will be no obstacles for the project to be accomplished in due course.

Therefore, the tasks given below should be undertaken to finish a building construction project in due course –:

• Create master schedule for the project
• Make a monthly plan on the basis of the master schedule
• Arrange weekly target on the basis of monthly target
• Monitor weekly target every day

2. Ensuring Contractor Selection on Time: Lots of tasks should be performed in a building construction project. Such as Civil works, Plumbing works, Electrical works, Painting works, etc.
All of these works should be executed with individual contractors. As for instance, the civil contractor should only perform the civil works like RCC and masonry works. Plumbing contractor performs sanitary and plumbing work and tiles contractors should accomplish the tiles work on a building construction project.
Although, the project manager takes the responsibility for the selection of the contractors, a site civil engineer should also assist the project manager to accelerate the selection process for the diverse work item of the project.
Check the project’s master schedule. When it is required to commence the next work phase, call for the next contractor prior to one month for executing the next task.
As for instance, if planning is made to commence tiles work after one month, enquire for tiles contractor from today.
A site civil engineer should take the liability to make sure the convenient work progress of the project. Therefore, call for desired contractors a month earlier than your master schedule to maintain smooth work progress.
Undertake the following tasks to make sure the selection of contractor on time –
• Study your project’s master schedule
• Determine when you are planning to commence next construction task
• Start enquiring of the contractor a month prior to start the actual task.
3. Ensuring Material Delivery on Time: The civil site engineer is liable for providing construction material on time to maintain the flow of construction work progress devoid of any shortage of materials.
For this purpose, don’t give order for all the necessary materials at a time rather order only those materials which are necessary on immediate basis.
Suppose you are going to develop a 2nd-floor slab and mild steel bar is required for that slab only. But if you give order for Rod for 3rd-floor slab also, a huge amount of money will be blocked unnecessarily which can be utilized for other purpose. It will not be so cost-effective.
So, the order should be given for materials which are only required.
So, the following tasks should be undertaken for making sure the delivery of materials on time – not before the time :-
• Workout the necessary materials for the task to executed next
• Make requisition for the materials. Specify material delivery date on the purchase requisition.
• Dispatch the requisition to purchase department on time. In a company, some times are required for approval of the purchase requisition. In this regard, some formalities are required. So, ensure that lead time is retained for the material delivery.
• Monitor the requisition in order that the delivery date of the materials is not missed out.
To get more information, go through the following link
7 Prime liabilities of a Civil Site Engineer in a Building Construction Project

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, February 19, 2018

Estimating Integration

How estimation done: Costs are generally estimated with the help of some methods that are found in Time Management idea such as one-point estimating, analogous estimating, parametric estimating and three-point or PERT estimating; besides all of this there is a different kind of estimation named method of estimation.

Bottom-up estimation is involved in the final distribution time of a project where it adds estimation of costs at each activity or work package, turning it up into control units and then finally works on whole project estimate. So the estimated created by following steps:
• Project management software: There is various kind of software that increases calculation speed needed to estimate costs and the calculations included direct, indirect, overhead and fixed cost calculations for many activities.
• Deciding resource cost rates: resources can be various kinds like human resources, vendors, consultants, suppliers, external technicians etc. and the project managers are aware about the involved rate for the resource cost.
• Reserve analysis: It gathers identification of activities with significant risks and resolution of all efforts needs to manage the occurred risks.
• Cost of quality: The quality efforts are divided as Cost of Quality.
In the time working with integration, often it is asked about estimation of interfaces that follows below kind of scenarios:
• In the New implementation of Sap, the project manager has to execute lots of interfaces to join with the previous systems
• In the B2B integration, a lot of new pattern and messages will come
• Movement from one integration broker to another.
When any of the scenarios will come interfaces are estimated by following the steps and the development is shown there:
1. Identification
2. System interactions with supported adapters
3. Specification
4. Development
5. Testing and fixing
6. Transport and configuration
7. Document
8. Going live
9. Support.
All of the steps take extra time that will expand the initial time. The 80/20 principle was invented a long ago that states that spend less time to do more work and if more time spends in the beginning of the estimation then the whole process might take longer time to end. To avoid this scenario, it is important to study about the process and understands it properly then starts the work and as there are more variations of the interfaces that look similar then it will be easy to arrange them as per order.
It must keep in mind that performing estimation is not an easy task as there will be many unknown details about development that can be seem unclear before started; so just go through them and make a detailed report.
Estimating Integration

Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, February 17, 2018

How to calculate volume and area of various complicated geometric shapes

In this construction video tutorial, you will be familiar with various formulas which are essential to measure the area and volume of various complicated geometric shapes.

These complicated shapes range from Trapezoidal pyramid, Right circular cone, Rumbas, Trapezium, Polygon, Circle, Rectangle, Square etc.

Geometry belongs to a section of mathematics that takes care of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. It provides a practical means of managing lengths, area and volumes efficiently.

Geometry is segregated into two dissimilar types: Plane Geometry and Solid Geometry. The Plane Geometry is suitable for various shapes like circles, triangles, rectangles, square and more. On the other hand, solid geometry is associated with working out the length, perimeter, area and volume of different geometric figures and shapes. Besides, they are utilized to measure the arc length and radius etc.

Geometry Formula is useful for making calculation of the length, perimeter, area and volume of different geometric shapes and figures. There exist several geometric formulas, which are associated with height, width, length, radius, perimeter, area, surface area or volume and much more.

Given below, an extensive lists of different types of basic geometry formulas :-

Perimeter of a Square=P=4a
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a square

Perimeter of a Rectangle = P = 2(l+b)
Here, l denotes Length and b denotes Breadth

Area of a Square=A=a2
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a square

Area of a Rectangle=A=l×b
Here, l denotes Length and b denotes Breadth

Area of a Triangle=A=b×h2
Here, b denotes base of the triangle and h denotes height of the triangle

Area of a Trapezoid=A=(b1+b2)h2
Where, b1 & b2 belong to the bases of the Trapezoid ; h = height of the Trapezoid

Area of a Circle=A=π×r2
Circumference of a Circle=A=2πr
Here, r denotes Radius of the Circle

Surface Area of a Cube=S=6a2
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a Cube

Surface Area of a Cylinder=S=2πrh
Volume of a Cylinder=V=πr2h
Here, r denotes Radius of the base of the Cylinder and h denotes Height of the Cylinder

To learn the detail calculation process, go through the following construction video tutorial.

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, February 16, 2018

What are the exact room sizes, basic needs and vastu position of any Indian residential building?

To sustain a convenient and healthful life, the room space in the house should be used in an efficient manner. So, you should have sufficient knowledge on lowest room size, basic needs and exact position of various rooms in the conventional Indian residential building which are based on day-to-day activities in the household, sun’s location, privacy and grouping of rooms for smooth access and Vastu Sastra preference for house.

In this article, you will get all the details of the above mentioned topics :-

Living Room: Living room is located in the entrance of the house. It has direct connectivity with other rooms like kitchen, bedroom, staircase and bathroom.

In this place all the family members frequently meet. So, there must be adequate natural lighting and air circulation via large windows. The facing of windows should be in east and north direction to arrange sufficient lighting and ventilation.

Least room size for living room= 16 sq.m with 3m on one side.

Position, direction for living room with adherence to Vastu Sastra = North-East (Eshanya = Direction of health, power and prosperity)

Bed Room: Bed room is treated as the private rooms for family members where they perform different activities. Master bedrooms involve attached bathroom and toilet. Privacy is a great concern for this room. These rooms are frequently utilized in the night-time and early morning hours and so their facing should be in south direction or North-East direction to experience direct sunlight and heat in the early morning hours.

Least room size of bedrooms= 12 sq.m

Position, direction for Bedroom as per Vastu Sastra = South direction (Dhakshin Yama = Direction of health, happiness, growth and female love). Keep away from North-West direction.

Also, sleep with head facing south direction because earth magnetic influence.

Kitchen: Kitchen should be built up on the North-East or South-East direction with windows facing East. Modern kitchen should be constructed with shelves, loft, sink, storage and exhaust. It should be open and smoothly approachable to the living room and dining area to track the activities as well as keep in contact with other members in dining.

Least room size for kitchen = 8 sq.m

Position, direction for Kitchen with adherence to Vastu Sastra = South-East direction with cooking faces east (Agneya or Agni = Direction of health)

Agni mulai as per vastu sastram of tamilnadu
Next option is North-West direction(Vayavya or Vayu)
or finally North-East Direction (Eshanya)
Required area of the staircase is based on the type and position of the staircase.
Least width of steps = 1 m
Landing size = 1.2 m
Rise = 150 to 180 mm
Tread = 250 to 300

Position, direction for staircase as per Vastu Sastra = South or South-West direction.

To get more information on the above topics, go through the following construction article

What are the exact room sizes, basic needs and vastu position of any Indian residential building?

Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Structural Design – Minimum Standard

Thumb rules for Structural Design of RCC Structures: It is advisable to use superior structural design software like ETabs or Staad Pro for making the design of structures. There exist different types of variables in making the design of a structure and therefore no minimum standards are perfect.

This guide is very helpful for making the design of very small structures, as for instance up to G+1 floors. It is recommended to apply good software for structural designer instead of manual methods. Manual method is only applicable for checks.

Real design is accomplished by applying the computers, through very advanced design concepts like pushover analysis, seismic analysis, wind loads simulation and various advanced processes.

Design of RCC Structural Components: This construction article sheds light on the minimum standards that should be undertaken for making the design of RCC structural components of a structure, like columns, beams, slab and foundation. Besides, the explanation is also provided for the minimum safe standards for the reinforcing bars which should be employed for the design of the above mentioned Structural Components.

Minimum cross-sectional dimension for a Column is 9”x 9” (225MM x 225MM). But to get rid of slenderness issues, a rectangular column with dimension 9″x 12″ (225 MM x 300 MM) should be designed for maintaining safety.

It is recommended to utilize M20 grade concrete for construction as per IS 456:2000 standard. The minimum steel required in a 9″ x 9″ column is 4 bars of 12 MM containing stirrups of 8 MM steel rings at a gapping of 150 MM centre to centre.

In a 9″ x 12″ column, two more bars should be included to easily manage the total to 6 bars having 12 MM diameter. This design is trustworthy for up to G+1 floors.

Minimum RCC beam size should not be under 9″x 9″(225MM X 225MM), with an extra slab thickness of 125 MM. It will be perfect to apply a minimum of 4 bars, with 2 bars having 12 MM thickness in the bottom of the beam, and 2 bars having 10 MM at the top of the beam.

A concrete cover having 40 MM dimension should be used. Besides, M20 grade of concrete (1 part cement : 1.5 parts sand : 3 parts aggregate : 0.5 parts water) should also be used.

Minimum thickness of RCC slab should be 5″ (125MM) as a slab may comprise of electrical pipes which are implanted into them with 0.5″ dimension or more for internal wiring to significantly decreases slab depths at specific places. It leads to cracking, weakening and water leakage throughout rains. Therefore, a minimum thickness of 5″ should have been retained.

Minimum size of foundation for a single storey of G+1 building should be 1m x 1m, where safe bearing strength of soil is 30 tonnes per square meter, and the approaching load on the column does not surpass 30 tonnes. Minimum depth of footing should be 4′underneath ground level. It is suggested to go to depths up to had strata.

To get more information, go through the following link

Structural Design – Minimum Standard

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

The Basic Requirements of Formwork

Formwork is a concrete construction that is used as either short or permanent molds into which fresh concrete or similar kind of materials are gushed to make it harden. The different types of concrete formwork construction depend on the material and the kind of structural element. They are given various names as per the type of structural member construction like slab framework, beam framework, column framework etc. to use in beams and columns.

The harden process requires time and includes an expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or more than that; the temporary design structures are made of economic expenditure.

While the removing process of the framework is known as stripping that can also be used later; the unusable are called panel forms and the non-useable are called stationary forms. The most commonly used material for formwork is Timber.

This article is a short knowledge for people about formwork, the different types of formwork and the basic needs to complete a formwork properly. Formwork comes in several types such as:

1. Traditional timber framework
2. Engineering Formwork System
3. Re-usable plastic formwork
4. Permanent Insulated Formwork systems
5. Stay-In-Place structural formwork systems
6. Flexible formwork

Requirements of Formwork: It is stated above that framework varies as per material and material is the main ingredient for every framework, but for any kind of chosen material the three common principles of quality, safety and economy should be the same. While the quality of material ensures safety and also considerably helps to achieve the economy; any kind of failure in framework can cause of the loss of life and tragic financial loss. To avoid the loss the following guidelines should be followed from start to framing materials and for the associated components:

1. Strength: The strength of material must be sufficient to strong the forces expected and this is the important for both the structural design and safety aspect.
2. Stiffness: the structural movement under load should be small and sure; these deformities and separations are the necessary part of the whole deviations in the formed concrete surface. While planning the formwork system, a designer must take decisions upon the total acceptable variations and the extend workmanship errors and structural deformity. The material stiffness and the workmanship accuracy must be stable to ensure the stability of the total deviations to keep the tolerances.

3. Impact Resistance: The forms are made to make sure that the damaged form that is useless does not make falling debris and to make sure this important safety quality, materials displaying ductile failure are far above than those fail in a hasty and brittle manner.
4. Durability: The framework must be durable either it will affect the economy and the achievement quality concrete product at every reuse of the formwork; formwork is always pre made and used out in the open. When the matter of re-uses came the thing is dependable on its reaction of materials and components with weather and the framing, components and formface materials should be strong in any environment. Material durability is important for both the achievement of good quality concrete surface finishes and safe formwork structures.

5. Weight: While the assembling process in formwork, both the members and components are shifted into position by hand that will be applicable after the complete framework which are heavy and need a crane to do the shifting work. So the framing members, formwork components and formface materials must be keep in size so that they must be carried and lifted by the worker or the crane etc.
6. Accuracy: Every construction process is dependable on a lot of money so the work of lifting and cutting of materials must be done within a minimum amount of money and consistency of size of materials, plywood sheets and framing members is very important.
7. Compatibility: The framework materials should be fitted with either the fluid concrete or the strong concrete and at the formface, the elements of the form materials must not react with the wet cement or concrete.
8. Insulation: Some materials react with the environment if it’s become extra hot or cold, so the protection for the materials is must; if the mix becomes frozen and the chemical bondage damages then the concrete has to be placed at low temperatures, heat the mixing water etc. The placing of the fluid concrete for all forms can cause some damage with the crushed rock aggregate and the proper steps has to be taken to stop it.

The Basic Requirements of Formwork

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Some handy tips to find out the compressive strength of mortar

It is advisable to apply 2 inch or 50mm cubes as stated by ASTM C109 / C109M – Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars to define the compressive strength of mortar.

Mortar is a formed by amalgamating cement, sand mixed with water. Application of mortar is found in masonry works like brick masonry and stone masonry and for plastering walls, columns etc.

Mostly utilized mix ratio of mortar in masonry works range from 1:3, 1:4 and 1:6 of cement to sand ratio. For vital masonry structures like brick walls, 1:3 ratio is applied.

Why Compressive Strength Test of Mortar is Important?

Usually masonry structures are built up as load bearing. As for instance, load bearing walls, load bearing masonry columns etc. are developed for residential and other masonry buildings. For a masonry buildings, foundations are also built up with brick masonry.

Towards a load bearing masonry construction, vital fact is to recognize the compressive strength requirement of masonry to resist the load that operates on it. A masonry wall is likely to deal with compressive loads from floors over it and should contain adequate strength to resist it. Therefore, masonry compressive strength should have been adequate to support the loads on wall.

How to find out the Compressive Strength of Mortar

To determine the compressive strength of standard cement sand mortar cubes, the following apparatus and methods of the test are undertaken :-

Apparatus: 7.06cm cubes moulds (50cm2 face area), apparatus for measuring and blending mortar, vibrator, compression testing machine etc.

Method for checking Compressive Strength of Mortar
Choose 200gm of cement and 600gm of standard sand in the mix ratio 1:3 by weight) in a pan.

The standard sand is made of quartz, of light, gray or whitish variety and does not contain silt. The sand grains is like angular, the shape of grains is similar to the spherical form, extended and flattened grains are found in very small quantities.

Standard sand passes across 2 mm IS sieve and is kept on 90 microns IS sieve with the particle size distribution as given below.

For more information, go through the following link

Some handy tips to find out the compressive strength of mortar

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, February 12, 2018

Construction Project Scheduling

It is generally a mechanism for communicating about the tasks has to do and the organizational resources that will be assigned to complete all those tasks in the given time.
In simple words, a project schedule is a kind of document that gathers all the important works so that project can be delivered on time. A project is a collection of many tasks where each task has a fixed start and end to complete it in time though people have different schedules and their every detail need to be documented in order to successfully plan those tasks.
In past time, the project schedules were printed on calendars on a shared wall in the water-cooler room or shared spreadsheets via email buy in today’s scenario, most of the teams use online project scheduling tools.
As in the current scenario, most of the projects have many moving parts and they are continuously changing; so project scheduling software automatically upgrades tasks which are dependable and can’t completed on time. Besides that, it also provides automated email alerts so that team members can be aware about their scheduled tasks’ time and manager will know when someone’s availability has changed.
Methods to schedule a project: The following steps will discuss how a project is scheduled -
• Specifying Activities: there are lot of activities in every project and at first the important ones need to be listed, here a Work Breakdown Structure or WBS and a deliverable diagram will help to start these activities and to arrange them by projecting the necessary tasks to fulfill them in a right order.
• Make the estimates: After having the defined activities and dividing them into tasks, the project manager has to decide the time and effort to complete them in order to calculate the right schedule.
• Design dependencies: Tasks should be only started after completing the existed ones and it is the task dependency that is reflected in the schedule through these linked tasks. So make sure that the important ones should be on the top of the schedule to complete the project on time.
• Assign resources: At last, the project manager has to finalize the planned schedule as per the needed resources to complete those tasks on time. Make a team; assign them in the project so that all the tasks will be completed together on time.
Maintaining the schedule after the project is started: After scheduling every little object in a project, they need to be manually punched into an Excel Spreadsheet and any project management software can automate much of the process for the manager. There are some programs on the market that are useful for easy scheduling duties and while a project; the managers often need a tool that can fit with the variety of scheduling issues that need to track.
• Scheduling tasks: The project manager has to know about smart software that help to give enough flexibility for controlling many responsibilities attached with every tasks in the project. He can either add tasks and dates into the Gantt chart to keep a visual image of each task’s duration and if the dates change, they can be automated by simple drag and drop with the changes. The email notifications are a great way to keep the track of completing task and the update will be done automatically.
• Scheduling people: To complete all the tasks on time a project manager should assemble all the tasks at first and assemble a team which must be scheduled as per the task list to manage the project. A manager should be aware that team members may take holidays, personal vacation or days and he should schedule the project’s task list so that other team members can pick up the slow in their absence so that the schedule will not suffer. He can keep the task scheduling view on the Gantt chart with resource and workload scheduling features.
• Scheduling projects: Making a project dashboard will help to manage the tasks to be completed in a clean and easy way without any interruption or problems, in addition that he can also use the graphs and charts the dashboard that generate to drill down deeper and customize the results to provide the right information on the right time.
Project Scheduling

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, February 9, 2018

Common causes of downfalls of Dam Structures

A dam is a block across flowing water that opposes, directs or slows down the flow, often creating a store, lake or captivities. Most dams have a section named a spillway or weir over or through which the water passes and have some hydroelectric power generation systems installed.

Dams are like ‘installations containing dangerous forces’ due to the huge impact of a possible destruction on the normal population and the environment.

Generally dam failures are happen rarely but can do huge damage and loss of life, it happens as the dam structures are constrained to horizontal loading from the water head behind. The pressure comes from the water to the dam materials such as the adjoining geology and size of the reservoir which are very new in the case of dam structures.

Common reasons of downfalls of Dam Structures: The most known reason of the downfall of the dam structures is overtopping which is happen either for exceeding that is something concerned with the design of the spillway.
• Overtopping: It is happen when water slopping over the top of a dam and become a reason of dam failure. The two major factors of the overtopping failure are one id created due to surface elevation exceeds the total structural elevation profile and the other one is the over washes of the waves.
• Foundation defects and Slope instability: Foundation defects with settlement and slope instability causes most of the dam failures.
• Cracking: happens by the movements like the natural setting of a dam.
• Water Violating.
• Piping.
• Subsidence and the movement of the foundation.
• Uplift form the ground and sliding of the structure.
• Variation in temperature.
• Dynamic blasting in the nearby areas.
• Seismic load action.
• Wave action on the structure and weak energy absorption.
• Higher amount of silting.
• Loosing shear capacity of the concrete.
Reasons of downfalls of Earth Dam Structures: In case of earth dam, that unique materials that are used for the structure is made from the earth materials is nearby the side and makes the structure to be mixed in nature showing different properties in different conditions of weather and bring variations in the physical properties. There are other reasons of the earth dam failure are: insufficient spillways, piping, failure of the structure etc. and many more.
Reasons of downfalls of Gravity Dam Structures: Gravity dams are made from concrete and masonry and the major causes of failures of these structures are: soil erosion, failed construction joints, poor material etc.
Reasons of downfalls of Arch Dam Structures: This dam is different as it has plane stresses existing and thrust and these factors are caused for the design of the structure and completely dependent on the conditions of soil and rock. The failure happens for lack of structure, penstock vibration and insufficient grouting action.
Reasons of downfalls of Buttress Dam Structures: They have the horizontal forces transferred to the rock foundation and carried out by water pressure which is analyzed for the sliding and overturning failure of dam structure. The main reasons of failure are: alternate freeze and thraw cycles, masonry etc.
Common causes of downfalls of Dam Structures
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Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, February 8, 2018

An exclusive course on structural analysis for civil engineering students

This is an exclusive structural analysis course that sheds light on an extensive series of materials which will be a great resource for civil engineering students. To get clear ideas on the topics covered in the course, you should have sound knowledge in mechanics of materials.

The course covers the following topics :-

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram Review - If the beam is loaded at random manner, the internal forces and moments are produced and the terms shear force and bending moments appear which are useful to analyze the beams furthermore.

Double Integration Method - The double integration method refers to a robust tool that can be used for resolving deflection and slope of a beam at any point to obtain the equation of the elastic curve.

Method of Superposition – Superposition method is used to determine the deflection. Fundamentally, a complex beam along with its loading is streamlined to a wide array of basic beams (one span) and with only one load.

So, the slope and deflection of a beam owning to various loads is equivalent to the sum of those as a result of the individual loads.

Moment Area Method - The moment-area method is mostly recognized for finding out the bending displacement in beams and frames. Under this method, the area of the bending moment diagrams is applied for working out the slope and or deflections at specific points along the axis of the beam or frame.

Slope Deflection Method - The slope deflection method stands for a structural analysis method for beams and frames. The method is very effective at the time of analyzing indeterminate structures. This method is normally used to determine what reactions exist on indeterminate structures.

Moment Equation - Bending Moment Equations provide a rapid and easy analysis to determine the maximum bending moment in a beam.

Force Method - The force method (also known as the flexibility method or method of consistent deformation) is applied to compute reactions and internal forces in statically indeterminate structures owing to to loads and imposed deformations.

An exclusive course on structural analysis for civil engineering students

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

More about design drawings and model planning

Planning: Building plans can be somehow difficult to get as the planning for every kind of building is not same and they upgrades and changes every day.

Plans are like a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams that are used to narrate a place or object or to communicate building or fabrication instructions which are drawn or printed on paper and can take the form of a digital file.

Planning are generally made for different technical purposes like architecture, engineering or construction etc. and those capture all the geometric features of a site, building, product or component in an accurate and clear way so that it can display a clear information to the builder or manufacturer to help in design.

Generally this process of making plans and producing them is known as technical drawing and a working drawing is a kind of technical drawing where documentation has to be done to build any engineering product or architecture such as civil, architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing etc. In the same way there is some software that helps to plan the models for building purpose or designing in other way such as BIM describes the process of creating and managing digital information about a building or other facility like bridge, highway, tunnel etc. and many more. BIM ensures that actual information should be created in a right format at the appropriate time so that better decisions can be taken in throughout the design, construction and operation of built assets.

At the beginning of a project, the BIM is known as Project Information model might include previous information like site reviews, condition reviews, information about previous services and many more and all those information should be generated from a previous Asset Information Model or Aim to operate and maintain a built asset.

A design intent model is developed in the time of design stages going in a project and it gets more detailed with the growth of the project and at last it will become a Virtual Construction Model with all other objects in the model to be manufactures, installed or constructed.

Design Drawings: they are used to develop and communicate ideas about a developing design and in the beginning stage of designing them only demonstrate to the client the capacity of a particular design team to grasp the design.

These designs are used in developing and communicating the detail, examine potential sites and assess options and develop the approved idea into a consistent and co-ordinate design and communicate the developed design to the local planning authority, contractors and suppliers.

Besides that it also keeps the track of the completed construction and constant changes in completing the construction project. But it is also true that some of these are not always known as design drawings as sometimes they has not started well or completed early. But all of them have some things of investigation or development of the design or sometimes they are good for nothing.

So these design drawings can be categorized as:

• Feasibility studies.
• Option appraisals.
• Concept drawings.
• Detailed or developed design.
• Technical design.
• Tender drawings.
• Shop, installation and construction drawings.

Design drawings are developed in a detailed way from block and massing drawings, sketches to detailed technical drawings etc. but while developing it are important to know the purpose and about the information the designs can narrate through them. They must determine their actual format, size, scale and every little detail that will be useful for the drawings suppliers to use in fabrication. These drawings can be prepared by architects, technicians, structural engineers, civil engineers and so on other different practitioners; but they must be carefully integrated and co-ordinated to give security about the right level of design in all the elements. These drawings has been revolutionized at first by CAD and then by BIM.

More about design drawings and model planning

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Post-tensioning and its phases

The ducts for the tendons (or strands) are arranged together with the reinforcement prior to the casting of concrete in post-tensioning systems.

The tendons are arranged in the ducts as soon as the casting of concrete is completed. The objective of duct is to avoid connection among concrete and the tendons throughout the tensioning operation.

Contrary to pre-tensioning, the tendons are pulled with the reaction that operates against the hardened concrete. It is defined as bonded post-tensioning when the ducts are filled with grout. The grout belongs to a neat cement paste or a sand-cement mortar that comprises of proper admixture.

In unbonded post-tensioning, the ducts are not at all grouted and the tendon is set in tension individually with the end anchorages. In the sketch given below, there is a schematic illustration of a grouted post-tensioned member. The profile of the duct is based on the support conditions. For a simply supported member, the duct contains a sagging profile among the ends. For a continuous member, the duct bends in the space and hogs over the support.

The following figures demonstrate the assessment of ducts in a box girder of a simply supported bridge. The second image demonstrates the end of the box girder as soon as the post-tensioning of some tendons is completed.

Given below, the different phases of the post-tensioning operation :-
1) Casting of concrete.
2) Arrangement of the tendons.
3) Arrangement of the anchorage block and jack.
4) Use tension to the tendons.
5) Seating of the wedges.
6) Cutting of the tendons.
The stages are demonstrates schematically in the following figures. Once a tendon is anchored at one end, the tension is employed at the other end with a jack.
The tensioning of tendons and pre-compression of concrete happen concurrently. A system of self-equilibrating forces forms once the tendons are expanded.
Post-tensioning and its phases

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, February 5, 2018

Why RC Structural Slabs and Beams are provided in plinth level

Given below, the detailed information on the importance of arranging RC structural slabs and beams at plinth level (GF-Finished Floor Level).

Wherever low/poor bearing capacity soils met with, the Architects and also certain Builders think and believe that If the bearing strength of soils become weak or low, RC Structural slabs & Beams may be arranged at plinth level (GF-Finished floor level) with the purpose of preventing settlement of foundation and subsequent development of cracks in walls.

By applying your own experience and expertise in foundation structure, it is possible to have clear idea on the behavior of weak bearing soil if loaded heavily. The foundation cost is raised by 50% with the inclusion of the cost of setting up RC Structural Slabs & Beams.

But the provision of RC structural slabs and Beams at plinth level may not be considered as useful solution to get rid of foundation settlement and subsequent cracks. Rather it will be treated as extra expenses that is incurred on the construction of structure.

It is recommended to apply the following measures to resist the settlement of foundation systems and wall cracks efficiently.

The foundation soil at a depth of 00 m to 2.70m (if it belongs to a weak bearing soil like soft/medium clay) should be artificially reinforced with Geogrids/Geotex layers supported with Quarry dust:Gravel Mix 1:3 or cement.

Quarry dust 1:10 mix in 4 or 5 layers of 200 mm thick will enhance the SBC of soil at 2.00m/1.80m level to 200kN/m2 from 100kN/m2.

Arrange an extra layer of Geogrid/Geotex over and then apply the PCC 1:5:10 for 100 mm. Over which the foundation system should be provided as designed-combined strip Raft/combined/isolated footings as per situation. Inspite, under reamed piles with pile cap may be arranged directly.

To get more details, go through the following link
Why RC Structural Slabs and Beams are provided in plinth level

Published By
Rajib Dey