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Saturday, January 20, 2018

Brief information on Project Cost System

If the design is modified at the design stage of a construction project, the project costs are constantly estimated and evaluated to keep the project costs within the budget of the owners. This working budget is normally known as the engineers or architects estimate. As soon as the design is completed, the field cost-control system is prepared with a final, detailed cost estimate of the total work.

This type of cost estimate is generally created by the construction contractor or another party who will be directly associated with the field operations. The contractor estimate is then abridged to a working construction budget and develop the foundation of the construction cost control system.

While the construction process is going on, cost accounting methods are utilized to recover actual construction expenses from current construction operations. This information is then applied for the purpose of controlling the cost on the current project and for working out the cost of future projects. Besides, the cost system offers significant information related to project financial control.

Preliminary Cost Estimates: Preliminary estimates of future construction expenses, are prepared throughout the project planning and design stages on the basis of approximation because these are accumulated prior to define the project entirely. This type of conceptual estimates differs from ascertaining the final detailed estimate of construction costs.

Basically, all conceptual price estimates are prepared on the basis of some system of gross unit costs which are acquired from earlier construction work. These unit costs are guessed forward in due course to focus on present market conditions, project location as well as the specific character of the job currently being considered. The following methods are followed to make preliminary estimates.

Cost per Function Estimate: This analysis is produced on the basis of the estimated expense per unit of use, like cost per patient, student, seat, or car space.
Construction expense may also be guessed like the average outlay per unit of a plants manufacturing or production capacity. These factors are normally applied as a method of instantly characterizing facilities costs at the setting up of a project when there is only raw marketing information, like the number of patients retained by a planned hospital. This extensive method of producing costs can also provide a powerful control on more detailed estimates as soon as they are created.
Index Number Estimate: This method is applicable for working out the price of a projected structure by upgrading the construction cost of the same type of current facility. It is performed by multiplying the original construction cost of the current structure with a national price index that is modified as per local conditions, like weather, labor expense, materials costs, transportation, and site location. A price index refers to the ratio of current construction cost to the original construction outlay for the type of structure concerned. Various types of price indexes are available in different trade publications.
Unit Area Cost Estimate: Under this type of method an approximate cost is selected with an estimated price for each unit of gross floor area. The method is found extensively in building and residential home construction. It offers a perfect rough calculation of costs for structures which are standardized or contain a large sampling of historical cost information from equivalent structures. This type of estimate is frequently applied in the industry to tally the relative value of different facilities.
To gather more information, go through the following construction article
Brief information on Project Cost System

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, January 19, 2018

Use and benefits of self compacting concrete

Self-consolidating concrete alias self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a concrete mixture that can flow into very complex forms with various reinforcing bars (rebar congestion) and leaves no voids.

It can be arranged with its own weight devoid of any mechanical vibration. SCC retains all the conventional mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete.

With extremely fluid nature of SCC, it becomes possible to arrange it in complicated conditions and in sections with congested reinforcement. It can also reduce hearing-related damages on the worksite due to vibration of concrete. In SSC, the required time is curtailed significantly for arranging bigger sections.

In some cases, the superplasticizers and viscosity modifier are provided to the mix to minimize bleeding and segregation.

A well designed SCC mix never segregates because it contains extreme deformability and outstanding stability characteristics.

Self-Compacting Concrete Properties: Self-compacting concrete has good resistance capacity against segregation as it applies mineral fillers or fines as well as special admixtures. Self-consolidating concrete is essential to flow and fill special forms under its own weight. It is flown adequately to travel over extremely reinforced areas, and should have capability to circumvent segregation of aggregate.

Self-compacting concrete contains an equivalent water cement or cement binder ratio that provides normally a slightly higher strength with regards to conventional vibrated concrete and because of non-existence of vibration, a better interface among the aggregate and hardened paste is created.

The concrete mix of SCC should be arranged at a comparatively greater velocity as compared to regular concrete. Self-compacting concrete is placed from heights longer than 5 meters exclusive of aggregate segregation. It is also useful for areas having normal and congested reinforcement, with aggregates as large as 2 inches.

Self-Compacting Concrete Uses - Self-compacting concrete is mostly utilized in bridges and even on pre-cast sections. This type of concrete is suitable for the following:

• Drilled shafts
• Columns
• Earth retaining systems
• Areas with high concentration of rebar and pipes/conduits

To know about the benefits of self consolidating concrete, go through the following link

Use and benefits of self compacting concrete

Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Benefits and drawbacks of steel members

Steel is formed by mixing iron, carbon and other components. Due to its extreme tensile strength and low cost, it is considered as a most vital component that is extensively utilized in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.

The steel provides lots of benefits as follows:

1. The steel members contain high strength. So, the steel members have the ability to withstand extreme loads with relatively light weight and small size of members.
Due to their small size, it becomes easier to deal with and transport steel members.
2. The steel members have strong resistance capacity against gas and water due to their high density power (the unit weight of steel is 7.85kN/m3).
3. The steel members last for prolonged periods due to great and standardized strength and density properties of steel.
4. The steel members are utilized as pre-fabricated members as they can be easily managed, fabricated and constructed.
5. The steel members can be easily disassembled or substituted.
6. The supplementary sections or plates can be added with the existing steel structure and structural components to improve the strength significantly.
7. The steel structures can be examined rapidly and smoothly.

8. It may be reprocessed / recycled in furnaces.
9. This material contains high ductility and it is very effective for earthquake resistance structures.

The drawbacks of steel members are as follows:

1. The steel members are vulnerable to corrosion. To get rid of corrosion, apply painting or other methods.
2. The steel members are expensive.


Benefits and drawbacks of steel members

Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Post Tension Slab and its benefits

Generally, post-tensioned (PT) slabs belong to flat slabs, band beam and slabs or ribbed slabs. PT slabs provide the leaner slab type, as concrete functions to its strengths, mostly being maintained in compression. Longer spans are obtained because of pre-stress, which are also utilized to resist deflections.

Post-tensioned slabs employ high-strength tensioned steel strands to compress the slabs to retain most of the concrete in compression. Reinforcement is arranged to control the compression.

In Post tension slab, the cables/steel tendons are applied to replace the reinforcement. It develops a very well-organized structure to reduce material usages as well as economic span range with regard to reinforced concrete.

Post-tensioning is very useful to defeat the natural weakness of concrete in tension and to optimize its strength in compression. In concrete structures, high-tensile steel tendons/cables are placed in the element prior to casting.

If the concrete attains the preferred strength the special hydraulic jacks are used to drag tendons and retain them in tension with specially designed anchorages fixed at each end of the tendon. It offers compression at the edge of the structural member that enhances the strength of the concrete for withstanding tension stresses.

If tendons are properly curved to a specific profile, they will employ, besides compression at the perimeter, a beneficial upward set of forces (load balancing forces) that will resist applied loads, alleviating the structure from a portion of gravity effects.
In this type of slab, cables are attached in spite of reinforcement. In Steel reinforcement the gapping among bars is 4 inch to 6 inch while in Post tension slab the gapping is over 2m.
• It facilitates slabs and other structural members to be slimmer
• It facilitates us to develop slabs on expansive or soft soils
• The produced Cracks are retained firmly mutually
• Post tension slabs are useful for building up stronger structures economically.
• It minimizes or removes shrinkage cracking. So, no joints, or fewer joints, are essential
• It allows us to design longer spans in elevated members, like floors or beams
• Only experienced professionals can construct post tension slabs.
• If precaution is not undertaken at the time of making it, it can cause future mishaps. In various situations, untaught workers become unable fill the gaps of the tendons and wiring entirely. These gaps lead to decay of the wires which become breakable quickly and unexpected collapsing may occur.
Post Tension Slab and its benefits

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Some practical issue prior to start foundation design

In foundation design, there may occur different types of issues associated with construction and costs.
Given below, the details of main issues :-
1. The foundations should be retained as shallow as possible, suitable for coping up with climatic effect, and strength of the surface soil; particularly in waterlogged ground. Excavation in severely waterlogged ground is extravagant and time consuming.
2. Expensive and complicated shuttering details should be bypassed specifically in stiffened rafts. Proper care should be taken with buildability.
3. Curtailment in the costs of piling, betterment in ground treatment, improvements in soil mechanics, etc. have significantly impacted the economics of design, and various standard solutions becomes obsolete. So, it is very much important to evaluate construction costs and methods on a regular basis.
4. Designers should have clear ideas on the assumptions which are provided in design. These range from the inconsistencies of ground conditions, the infrequent unsuitability of refined soil analyses and the feasibility of construction.
5. The authenticity of the soil analysis, through vital evaluation.
6. Impact of construction on ground properties that range from vibration from piling, degradation of ground uncovered with excavation in unfavorable weather conditions, exclusion of overburden, seasonal disparity in the water-table, compaction of the ground by construction plant.
7. Impact of changeable shape, length and inflexibility of the foundation, and the requirement for movement and settlement joints.
8. Consequences on finished foundations of sulfate attack on concrete, ground movements because of frost heave, shrinkable clays, and the impacts of trees; also modifications in local environment due to new construction, re-orientations of heavy traffic, setting up of plant in adjacent factories inducing impact and vibration.
9. Rapid but invaluable construction is more cost-effective as compared to low-cost but slow construction to clients to bring quick return on capital investment.
10. Impact of new foundation loading on obtainable adjacent structures.
For more information, go through the following construction article

Some practical issue prior to start foundation design
Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, January 12, 2018

Simplify the rectangular & continuous footing design with StruCalc

StruCalc’s footing design module is very useful to create the design of square, rectangular and/or continuous footings.

The footing module can be used to meet size and reinforcement requirements for any concrete footing loaded with pure vertical load. Once a footing type is set, StruCalc will then require what is providing the load; it signifies that the type of column is set for the square or rectangular footing, or the stemwall type for the continuous footing.

As soon as the footing type is provided, then the loads on the footing should be entered. The loads originate from two sources: calculations somewhere in the structure that might leads to reactions from beams, columns, walls, etc., or they might originate from the use of the load calculator. The load calculator will produce loads on the footing depending on the user set floor, roof, and wall loads accompanied by indicating tributary widths or areas.

Just fill in the load options of the calculator and it will automatically workout the Live Load and Dead Load.

As soon as the loads are provided, there exist some supplementary footing/environment information like steel yield strength, concrete compressive strength, soil bearing pressure, reinforcement cover, and reinforcement bar size etc. should have been entered.

StruCalc preloads some common values for the properties stated above, but the user will be able to modify any values that seem to be inappropriate.

Besides, adequate information concerning the column should also be entered while going to perform a square or rectangular footing design.

Now, for creating the designing of a square or rectangular footing, StruCalc will need a depth and a trial footing width (and length for rectangular footing) to be entered. Once, these are entered, StruCalc will check their capability provide the necessary reinforcement.

If the dimensions of the footing are not sufficient, a red bar will be visible in the lower right hand corner of the screen and new dimensions should have to enter. It will be at this point though, that StruCalc will have computed a necessary area for the footing. It will facilitate the user to indicate dimensions to fulfill the required area.

While going to design a continuous footing, then the density of the stemwall and height, along with the footing depth should have been entered. Once they are entered, StruCalc will produce a necessary footing width and the continuous reinforcement that is essential.

For more information, go through the following article

Simplify the rectangular & continuous footing design with StruCalc

Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, January 11, 2018

Some useful terms and definition used in brick masonry

Brick masonry is applied for developing buildings and other structures by bonding brick stone, stone blocks, brick blocks with various types of masonry.

For temporary sheds mud mortar is suitable but for all permanent buildings lime or cement mortars are utilized.

Different terms and definitions associated with Brick Masonry:

Course: A course refers to a layer of the same unit that runs parallel in a wall.

It is also described as a continuous row of any masonry unit like bricks concrete masonry units (CMU), stone, shingles, tiles, etc.

Bed: It belongs to the surface of stone vertical to the line of pressure. It specifies the lower surface of bricks or stones in every course.

Back: It is the inward surface of a wall that is not uncovered. The material that is used to develop the back is called backing.

Face: The outside of wall uncovered to weather is called face. The material that is utilized in the face of the wall is named as facing.

Hearting: It belongs to the inside part of a wall among n the facing and backing.

Side: It refers to the surface that builds up the boundary of bricks or stones in a transverse direction to the face and bed.

Joint: It is the meeting point of two or more bricks or stones. If the joint is parallel to the bed of bricks or stones in a course then it is termed as bed joint. Alternatively, it is a horizontal layer of mortar on which masonry units are arranged.

The joints which are set perpendicular to the bed joints are called vertical joints or side joints or just joints.

Some useful terms and definition used in brick masonry

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

The process of concrete by weight and volume

atching is defined as the method for computing & combining the various components (cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water) for the formation of concrete prior to mixing following the mix design.

If this calculation is accomplished based on the volume, it is known as volume batching. Batching is categorized as follow :-

1) Volume batching
2) Weigh batching

Volume batching: In volume batching, the mass of each component is not calculated before batching, rather than there are some fabricated boxes(generally wooden) which are calculated in volume to retain the concrete components.

• This method is normally suitable for small jobs.
• Gauge boxes are applied for estimating the fine and coarse aggregate.
• The volume of gauge box has the similarity with the volume of one bag of cement.
• Gauge bow are also titled as FARMAS.
• They are formed with timbers or steel.

• Normally, they are created as deep and narrow.
• Normally, bottomless gauge boxes are not recommended for application.
• At the time of filling the gauge boxes the material should be filled loosely, no compaction is permissible.

Weigh batching: Weigh batching is the proper and most recognized method of estimating concrete ingredients. Weigh batching is performed in very vital modern concrete batching and mixing plants.

• Batching by weight is better than volume batching in terms of perfectness. Besides, it offers more consistent proportioning. It is always recommended professionally.
• It does not contain uncertainties related to bulking.
• Its equipment’s are divided into 3 general categories.
• Manual
• Semi-automatic
• Fully automatic.
• If batching is done by hand all weighing and batching of concrete are performed by hand. It is suitably for small jobs.

• For semi-automatic batching the aggregate bin gates are opened by operating switches with hand and gates are closed automatically when the material is delivered. This system also comprises of interlock that resists charging and discharging.

The process of concrete by weight and volume

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, January 9, 2018

Checklist of Concrete Formwork at Construction Site throughout Concreting and Striking

Concrete formwork stands for a temporary supporting structure for concrete. It is arranged at the job site to retain the concrete in perfect position and shape unless it becomes solidified.

Ensure that formwork should be done prior to start of concreting work, throughout concreting and after elimination of formwork. Concrete formwork contains both quality and safety threats. If the formwork is improper for the concrete and work is accomplished at height, safety issue may occur.

If the formwork is imperfectly organized and does not have good resistance capacity against leak, the quality of concrete may hamper. If the concrete formwork is stored sufficiently, the cost of the project is reduced significantly.

Checklist of concrete formwork in construction site:

Formwork Checklist for Walls:

1. Make sure lateral bracings rigidly supports the forms at all points of support.
2. Layout (stop end) braced to withstand vertical and lateral loads.
3. Form panels are sufficiently braced and attached with each other.
4. Formwork corners shall be adequately attached so that leakage, bulging and spreading of concrete do not occur.
5. Make sure there is adequate length for wall ties as well as necessary strength and spacing as necessary.
6. Verify wales to maintain proper spacing and joints and they should be staggered from one tier to the next.
7. In double member wales, one member remains continuous over the location of form ties.
8. Wall ties and bolts are tightened properly.
9. In case of double member, wales are utilized an
10. Verify that sufficient lap exists among forms and previously cast concrete.
11. Make sure that there is no grout leakage at joints among panels and joints connecting old concrete and panels over them.
12. Examine the provision of resistance against uplift for sloping faces of concrete formwork.
13. Make sure that the installation of wall forms and placement of concrete should be done at the construction site in the presence of an experienced supervisor.
To get more details, go through the following construction article
Checklist of Concrete Formwork at Construction Site throughout Concreting and Striking

Published By
Rajib Dey

Monday, January 8, 2018

AStrutTie 2017 – The powerful software for structural design

HanGil IT develops AStrutTie 2017, a software that can be used for strut-tie model analysis and design for concrete members having disturbed stress region(s).

This software facilitates the construction professionals to design corbel (bracket), abutment/pier footing, bridge pier coping (pier cap), frame corner, anchorage zone, deep beam, etc. The software is compatible with U.S (ACI 318, AASHTO LRFD) and Europe (EuroCode 2) codes and specifications.

A concrete member is segregated into B-region(s) and D-region(s). D-regions stand for the portions of structure where the strain distribution is extremely nonlinear. Empirical approaches are followed for most design practices for D-regions.

The strut-tie model is suitable to understand load transfer mechanisms and structural behavior in an efficient manner and it enhance the capability of the designers to deal with unconventional circumstances along with D-regions.

The most accurate strut-tie models is developed based on the principal stress flows and/or evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) results. A specialized solver is connected that has the ability to deal with any types of internally/externally (in)determinate strut-tie models. The strut-tie model provisions of ACI 318-14 (2014), AASHTO LRFD (2014), and EC2 (2004) are employed.

In order to design the strut-tie model rapidly and easily, multirole templates are arranged for corbel (bracket), abutment footing, pier footing, bridge pier coping (pier cap), frame corner, anchorage zones together with inclined and straight tendons, and deep beams with concentrated and distributed loads.

The shapes of concrete members and truss models are also formed by importing .dxf files. Advanced element sets illustrate truss mechanism, truss and arch mechanism, and fan action is arranged.
AStrutTie offers several automated design checks concerning the conditions for rebar requirement and strength verification of struts and nodal zones.
Visual verifications of strength conditions can also be performed. A structural design report is created automatically, and design results are evaluated by previewing the report. The structural design report is printed as a .rtf or .xlsx file format.
To download the software, click on the following link
AStrutTie 2017 – The powerful software for structural design

Published By
Rajib Dey

Saturday, January 6, 2018

Definition of mortar and it’s different types

Mortar is a useful construction material combined with cement, lime, fine aggregates (sand, surkhi), water and various types of admixtures. It is utilized in masonry construction to bind the masonry or structural units as well as fill & seal the spaces among the stone, bricks and cement blocks applied in construction. It comes in the form of a paste and sets solid.

Often decorative colors are included for the architectural purpose. When the mortar in exact ratios of two or more components is available in premix mortar form, it is known as ready mix mortar.

The purpose of ready mix mortar is to unite building materials, to accomplish pointing work and plaster work, develop an flat and soft bedding layers, develop joints of pipe, conceal the open joints of brickwork and stone, accomplish structure maintenance work etc.

Given below, the details of various types of ready mix mortar accessible in the market on the basis of their functionality and mixture of binding material.

01. Ready mix cement mortar
02. Ready mix lime mortar
03. Ready mix surkhi mortar
04. Ready mix cement lime mortar

Ready mix Cement mortar is admixture of cement and sand, where cement functions as a binding material. The ratio of cement to sand fluctuates from 1:2 to 1:6 on the basis of their strength necessary for a specific work.

Ready mix Lime Mortar is premix of lime and sand, where lime functions as a binding material. The proportion of lime to sand ratio is maintained as 1:2(1 part of dry lime is combined with 2 part of dry sand).

Ready mix Surkhi Mortar is premix of lime, surkhi and water. Lime to surkhi ratio is kept 1:2 (1 part of dry lime is mix with 2 part of dry surkhi). It is type of lime mortar where sand is replaced by surkhi for saving and potency. Surkhi stands for finely burnt clay particles and normally formed with slightly under burnt bricks. Good surkhi should be rinsed properly and does not contain any admixture of foreign substances.
Ready mix Cement Lime Mortar is premix of Cement, lime and sand, where cement and lime function as binding materials. It is recognized as combination or gauge ready mix mortar. The formation of cement to lime mortar by volume is approximately 1:6 to 1:9. This type of mortar combination (i.e. lime and cement) is considered as tough, solid and cost-effective.
Ready mix mortar is obtainable in 5 kg (For Repairing), 25 kg and 50kg bags. Water should have been added on the construction site following specific work requirement.
Adding water in premix on the construction site should be done on the basis of IS Code or as suggested by an engineer in charge. In recent times, special mortar is utilized for the repair and maintenance purpose which contain properties like the free flow and high strength with regard to the normal mortar.
Based on their function, better shelf life and strength, several brands are found in the market with cost of Rs150to Rs700 per 50 kg bag of ready mix Mortar.
Definition of mortar and it’s different types

Published By
Rajib Dey

Friday, January 5, 2018

How to estimate cement bags in 1 cubic meter

Suppose the proportion of nominal mix is 1:2:4 (one part cement, 2 part sand and 4 part aggregate)

Wastage of cement is taken as 2%
Output of mix is provided as 67%.

For 1 cum output, the requirement of dry mix is 1/0.67 = 1.49 say 1.50 cum.
After including the wastage (2%), the output will be (1.50 + 0.02) = 1.52 cum.
Volume of cement = (cement/cement+sand+aggregate) × Total material

= (1/1+2+4) × 1.52
=0.2171 cum
The density of cement is 1440 kg/cum and
Weight of 1 bag cement = 50 kg.

So, volume of 1 bag cement = 50/1440
=0.0347 cum.
No. of cement bags essential in 1 cubic meter = 0.2171/0.0347
= 6.25 bags.
The above formula can be utilized for measuring cement for other nominal mixes.

To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.

How to estimate cement bags in 1 cubic meter

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Published By
Rajib Dey

Thursday, January 4, 2018

Units of measurement used in surveying & construction works

Unit of measurement is also known as the International System of Units, or SI. Units of measure in the metric system. The units of length or linear size are derived from the metre. They comprise of the kilometre (km) that is 1000 meters, the centimetre (cm), and the millimetre (mm) which is 1/1000th of a meter.

A unit of measurement refers to a specific magnitude of a quantity, described and approved by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

Any other quantity of that type can be stated as a multiple of the unit of measurement. As for instance, a length is a physical quantity.

Standard unit of measurement :-

Type - U.S. Unit - Metric Unit
Length - Inches, Feet, Yards, Miles - Millimeters, Centimeters, Meters, Kilometers
Weight - Ounces, Pounds - Grams, Kilograms
Time - Seconds, Minutes, Hours - Seconds, Minutes, Hours
Volume - Ounces, Gallons - Milliliters, Liters

Given below, the details of measurements which are utilized in surveying and construction works :-

For construction work: feet, inches, fractions of inches (m, mm)
For most surveys: feet, tenths, hundredths, thousandths (m, mm)

For National Geodetic Survey (NGS) control surveys: meters, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 m
The following equivalents are used frequently :-
1 meter=39.37 in =3.2808 ft
1 rod =1 pole=1 perch=16.5ft(5.029 m)
1 engineer’s chain =100 ft =100 links (30.48 m)
1 Gunter’s chain= 66 ft (20.11 m) =100
Gunter’s links(lk)=4 rods=0.020 km
1 acre=100,000 sq (Gunter’s) links=43,560ft2 = 160 rods2 =10 sq (Gunter’s) chains=4046.87m2 = 0.4047 ha
1 rood=1011.5 m2 =40 rods2
1 ha= 10,000 m2 =107,639.10 ft2 = 2.471 acres
1 arpent=about 0.85 acre, or length of side of 1 square arpent (varies) (about 3439.1 m2)
1 statute mi=5280 ft=1609.35 m
1 mi2 = 640 acres (258.94 ha)
1 nautical mi (U.S.)= 6080.27 ft= 1853.248 m
1 fathom=6 ft (1.829 m)
1 cubit=18 in (0.457 m)
1 degree=0.01745 rad=60 min =3600 s
sin 1 =0.01745241
1 rad = 57.30 degree
For more information, go through the following link
Units of measurement used in surveying & construction works
Published By
Rajib Dey

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Detail lists of useful construction tools

Given below, the detailed lists of various useful construction tools and their applications :-

Hoe – It is effective for digging and arranging concrete, cement mortar in head pan. Hoe is also useful for excavating the soil but here the metal plate is set with acute angle to the wooden handle.

Head Pan – It is utilized to transmit materials. Head pan is built with iron to uprise the excavated soil or cement or concrete to the construction site etc. it is mostly found in construction sites.

Masonry trowel – The objective of this tool is to organize cement mortar. It refers to a hand trowel that is applied in brickwork or stonework for the purpose of leveling, dispersion and shaping mortar or concrete.

Measurement Tape – It is employed to examine the thickness, length, widths of masonry walls, foundation beds, excavated trenches etc.

Plumb Bob - It is applicable for verifying the vertical alignment of the structures. It comprises of a solid metal bob attached with the end of a thread. It can also be applied in surveying to level the instrument position.

Wheel Barrow – It is useful for carrying out cement mortar or any materials. Often, it is utilized to estimate the quantities of materials for site level concrete mixing.

Concrete Mixer – It is a machine that is used for blending the concrete perfectly with water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and cement at construction site.

Vibrator - It is utilized to vibrate the concrete when pouring is started. For the purpose of workability, water is added to concrete. To get rid of that, vibrators are applied.

Bump Cutter/Screed – The objective of this tool is to level fresh concrete surface particularly in slab concrete.

Wooden Float/wooden rendering float - This tool is useful for providing a flat finish to the plastered area.
Crow Bar - This tool is found in formwork to eliminate nails from boards. Crow bar is also applied for digging the ground and taking out the roots of trees in the ground, nails etc.
Framing Square - This tool is mostly found in Brickwork, Plastering to verify exact angle.
Line Level - This tool is required to verify horizontal level in brickwork, plastering , flooring and tile works.
Flat Pry Bar - This tool is found in shuttering and often utilized to modify the column formwork to align.
Digging bar - This tool is used to divide and unloose the compacted / hard surface area. Digging bar refers to a solid metal rod having pin shape at the bottom. It is also utilized to dig the hard surfaces of ground.
For more information, go through the following link
Detail lists of useful construction tools

Published By
Rajib Dey

Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Some handy tips to examine the quality of cement in the construction site

Cement is considered as the most vital component in any construction. The cement plays the role of a binder that unites aggregate and sand jointly in concrete.

Though it is difficult to examine all the properties of cement, but there are some elementary field tests which provide a rough idea about the quality of cement.

Given below, the detailed lists of simple tests which can be easily accomplished devoid any equipment to determine the cement quality. These elementary tests involve examining the properties of cement upon which the strength and quality of Cement depend.

1. Date of Packing (MFG Date): It is found that the strength of the cement decreases as time passes. According to IS Specifications, cement should be reexamined if it is preserved in excess of three months in the mill.

The percentage of strength loss for various time gapping is provided below.

From the above mentioned table, it is found that the strength of cement is reduced over a period of time.

2. Colour of Cement: The color of cement should have been consistent. Grey containing a light greenish shade is considered as a standard color of cement. The quantity of surplus clay or line is determined with cement color.

3. Check for lumps: If moisture exists in cement, lumps may develop. Cement endures a chemical reaction if it gets in touch with the atmospheric moisture and it is called as hydration. Moisture is very harmful for cement. Cement becomes ineffective as soon as it is hydrated with water (liquid form or vapour form)

4. Rubbing Test: Choose a bit of cement rub within your fingers, if it remains smooth at the time of rubbing, the quality of cement is good. But if it is rough, it signifies that cement is blended with sand.

5. Float test of cement: Choose a bit of cement and put it in water, a good quality of Cement should be submerged and should not float on water.

6. Hand insertion: Put your hand into the cement bag. It you get cool feeling, then there is no hydration reaction in cement bag.

For more information, go through the following link

Some handy tips to examine the quality of cement in the construction site

Published By
Rajib Dey