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Saturday, April 21, 2018

Waterproofing of Concrete, Walls and Floors

Construction of any building is not easy and it doesn’t end after completing the building; as there are so many other little things that need to look after before making a building.

One of those is waterproofing the building, a building must be guarded from water, heat, heavy sunrays and dust; if any of them is not properly followed during the construction then the building is not safe actually. Waterproofing is done at the time of concrete and sometimes a badly made concrete can’t guard the building from water for the discrimination of water by any admixtures.

A concrete is called waterproof when a dense concrete is made with right amount of total non-porous material and low water ratio; which will create a minimum of air blanks. As all concretes are porous so these holes need to be reduced for making the concrete so far tight to water.

It is sometime good to use a little extreme proportion of fines to make a good concrete; also a little increment in cement content over normal concrete is also beneficial as more cement needs less water for the same amount of work.

This thing need to describe a little more, here some methods is discussed for waterproofing:

a) Concrete and masonry grains are made waterproof with the use of three substitute layers of alum and soap mixtures, at first a hot alum solution is prepared with hot water, applied and worked in with a firm brush after pouring the hot soap mixture. The solutions are used with a gap of about 24 hours between the alternate coats; soap mixtures act like lubricants and also form difficult fillers by response with cement and may be applied while the concrete remains green.

b) When a fully hydrated white lime is added with the following mixtures it gives more proof from water; this mixture acts good as the lime paste absorbs about double the volume of paste when it mixed with equal weight of cement. It is also very effective in faulty filing but the mixture should be of thick concrete; the hydrated lime actually grows ability of work that gives a slight decrease in water content and reduces penetrability. Concrete must be made rich where the excess cement should be 15-20% over sand and 20% excess mortar over rough aggregate; a ratio mixture of 1:1.5:3 with water/cement ratio of about 0.40 will make the concrete really water-proof.

c) After the practicable work, the form-work has to be removed and the concrete exterior should be rubbed smooth and washed. To fill the holes, a mixture of cement and sand in the ratio of 1:1.5 with water-proofing compound is applied over the whole exterior without leaving any material on the concrete face.

d) Work on concrete floors are done at the time of cementing with dry cement which is sprayed over the exterior and worked in with a steel trowel on the first set of the concrete.

e) The method of water-proofing on the surfaces depend on the quality of concrete and the smallest holes can be filled with slit or fine clay, boiled linseed oil, paraffin or varnish then brushed over the exterior after the concrete has dried well. Nearly two or three layers are applied and dried before the next application; one or two layer of coal tar makes the exterior waterproof, concrete must be dry and free of dust and a thin bituminous coat can also be given for more firmness.

f) Generally Bituminous Putties are laid on horizontal exteriors and also mopped on vertical exteriors when they are either hot or cold.

g) Proprietary compounds like Pudlo, Medusa etc. are used as per the instructions of manufacturers. Insert materials which are of the finest particles can be used to dense the concrete especially when the total is in fines.

h) Silicate or soda also works well in water-proofing; whereas the mixture of 1 kg of washing soda and water will make a cement mortar water-proof.

For more information, go through the following construction article theconstructioncivil.org

Waterproofing of Concrete, Walls and Floors

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, April 20, 2018

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

Steel buildings are mostly recognized since they are inexpensive as well as they can be mass produced and adapted from prevailing standards to fulfill various purposes.

The uses of steel building are found in different sectors like agricultural to commercial.

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL BUILDINGS

1. They are cost effective as compared to other building materials since you don’t have to appoint the engineers and architects for constructing the building. The steel buildings can be easily sustained and can be mass produced. They are one of the affordable types of building obtainable at this level.

2. Steel buildings are perfect for almost any space, specifically as they fulfil the needs for various types of single story buildings. They are also greatly ecological, specifically when provided with thermal accessories – of which several types are well-suited – for increased energy efficiency.

3. They can be sustained efficiently. In wooden buildings, or any type of structure which are built with organic material, there is chance for mould and mildew infestations and steel buildings are 100% eco-friendly so can either be easily reprocessed.

4. Steel buildings are utilized for different purposes: agricultural, storage, offices, temporary venues etc. They can be built up easily secure, both from damage and outside access, since steel (not like wood) will not distort and fastenings will persist protected in due course of time.

5. Steel buildings can be constructed easily and maintainable by their users, and be associated with a variety of supplementary features which can be acquired at little additional cost from the manufacturer. These extra features contain mezzanine options, green energy solutions, additional access doors and colors.

6. Steel buildings are designed for both permanence and impermanence that means they can be utilized for stockpile throughout project accomplishment or for long term stockpile of machinery or goods. Besides, the steel building are environment friendly as they can be easily set up with solar panels.

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Variations among pier, abutment and column

This construction video tutorial sheds light on the variations among pier, abutment and column. It is a very important topic for civil engineering students.

Definition of Pier: Normally, pier stands for the types of column which are situated among the two abutments in the bridge to accommodate the load of super structure of the bridge.

It transmits the load of vehicles, slab and longitudinal and cross beams to the foundation.

Definition of Abutment: It is mainly applied at the ends of the bridge to keep hold of the embankment as well as bear the vertical and horizontal loads for the bridge super structure to the foundation. Abutments are normally built up from concrete to combat the heavy load of the vehicles.

Abutment and pier have to resist wind and seismic load other than the load transmitted to it from beams and are known as substructure of bridge.

Definition of column: In Civil Engineering term, the column refers to a vertical member that bears the compressive load as well as transmits the load from slab and beams to the Foundation or Footing.

Variations among Pier and Abutment

Piers belong to the internal supports of the bridge.

Abutments belong to the ends supports of the bridge.

Abutment is developed in the end of bridge to support vertical and lateral moments, whereas, if we have a bridge containing multi spans, then, pier is arranged in the end of each span to support the same forces and moments.

More than two piers can be used in bridge construction.

The numbers of abutments are just two in the bridge at the ends.

Piers are built up among the abutments.

Abutments are the external support of the bridge.

To get more details go through the following video tutorial.



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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, April 16, 2018

The role of water in concrete

Water Cement Ratio signifies the ratio among the weight of water to the weight of cement applied in concrete mix.

Generally, water cement ratio remains under 0.4 to 0.6 with adherence to IS Code 10262 (2009) for nominal mix (M10, M15 …. M25)

The strength of concrete is directly impacted by the water cement ratio. It enhances the strength if employed in perfect ratio and if the ratio is improper, the strength will be reduced.

The importance of Water in Concrete

Concrete refers to a macro content. It comprises of micro constituents like cement, sand, fine aggregate & Coarse aggregate. With the purpose of obtaining high strength concrete to resist the desired compressive strength, it is required to set exact ratio of admixture to unite these materials.

The role of water is important here to accelerate this chemical process by adding 23%-25% of the cement volume. It produces 15% of water cement paste also called gel to fill the voids in the concrete.

Impact of too much water in concrete: If additional water is added more than the permissible limit of 23%, the strength of concrete will be significantly affected.

If the task of adding water is continued to improve the workability then the concrete contains lots of fluid materials where the aggregates will settle down. As soon as the water is evaporated it puts down lots of voids in concrete which influences the concrete strength.

But if the guidelines are followed to retain the strength of the concrete then it will change the concrete workability and makes it difficult to manage and place them.

Workability signifies the capacity of concrete to manage, convey and place devoid of any segregation. The concrete becomes perfectly workable if it can be easily dealt with, placed and transported devoid of any segregation at the time of being placed in construction site.


For this purpose, plasticisers & superplasticizers are utilized to enhance the workability by keeping the W/C Ratio unchanged.
In order to know how to work out water cement ratio, go through the following construction article www.civilology.com
The role of water in concrete

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, April 13, 2018

The detailed method of highway construction

By making extensive surveys and subgrade groundwork, highway construction is normally conducted. The methods and technology for constructing highways are upgraded in due course of time and turns to be more advanced.

The improvement in technology has increased the grade of skill sets essential for dealing with highway construction projects.

This skill differs from project to project, on the basis of different factors like the project’s complications and type, the contrasts among new construction and reconstruction, and variations among urban region and rural region projects.

There exist various components of highway construction which are segregated into technical and commercial components of the system. Given below, some illustrations of them:

Technical Components -

a. Materials
b. Material quality
c. Installation systems
d. Traffic


Commercial Components -

a. Contract understanding
b. Ecological characteristics
c. Political characteristics
d. Legal characteristics
e. Public interests


Generally, construction starts at the lowermost elevation of the site, in spite of the project type, and moves upward. After evaluation of the geotechnical specifications of the project, the following information is provided:

Present ground conditions -

a. Necessary apparatus for excavation, grading, and material transportation to and from the site
b. Characteristics of materials to be excavated
c. Necessity of dewatering for below-grade work

d. Necessity of shoring for excavation protection
e. The quantities of water for compaction and dust control


The detailed method of highway construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, April 12, 2018

Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India

QTO or Quantity take-offs is a thorough estimation of materials and labors which are required to complete any construction project.

These QTOs are expanded by an estimator in the preconstruction time and the estimation is used to format a bid on the range of construction.

Job Description: It is known to all that most of the engineering and construction projects come with large-scale actions and they need the investments of large amount of money. Projects are often get form some clients or contractors who want the highest quality in the project with a minimal cost that’s why they engage people called quantity surveyors. So basically a quantity surveyor has to do the job of a financial manager for a large engineering project who is charged with the maximum value of the project for his/her client to give a right balance of cost and quality.

When a quantity surveyor is involved in a project, he/she has to work with clients and their contacts from the start of the project during the process of the contract and engaging in opening cost analysis. From the start to end of a project, a quantity surveyor has to keep a continuous observation over the whole process and finds way for more improvement in the investment and project by producing daily profitability reports and keeping all the updates. Besides that, quantity surveyors also give advice and support for different tasks pursuing completion of the project for further changes.

Qualification: A quantity surveyor should have a college degree with significance in engineering and/or finance. So candidates must have to pursue official certificate and those who are not form a technical surveying will not be eligible so necessary education and experience is needed.

Wages: A Quantity Surveyor with the skills of Autodesk Quantity Takeoff can get the average payment of Rs. 418829 per year and the job needs a strong experience though this job generally don’t have more than 20 years’ experience. Salary could be Rs. 201164 – Rs. 833129 and bonus will vary that can be up to Rs. 95449 and with that there is also be the profit sharing, so it is clear that a quantity surveyor can get a good salary.

Quantity Surveyor Tasks:
• A quantity surveyor has to help in the credentials of commercial risks and chances and execute value engineering exercises when it is needed.
• He/she has to make and control material provision schedules.
• A quantity surveyor has to stimulate and develop a culture of contract awareness and assure about the fulfillment of contracts by stiffly maintaining records, contractual notifications, changing control etc.
• Also need to ready internal value reports for upper management and other departments.
More than that, they can get jobs in their cities or their nearby cities so start finding.
Apply Online www.payscale.com
Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India
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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Testing of Concrete masonry Blocks

Concrete masonry bricks are very useful in the rural areas as it is cheap, easily found and can form less strong buildings, the compressive strength of the bricks should be tested.

And in urban areas these kinds of buildings may present a combination of both office and houses or grocery stores and houses or offices and retail stores.

Concrete can be changed into formed masonry units like Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks in right size to use for load and non-load bearing units for fencings or wallings. These concrete blocks are used more in the regions where soil bricks are costly, have less strength and not available all the time. As per the structural needs of masonry unit, the concrete mixes can be arranged using available ingredients or if not be suitable then with in the most economical distance.

Hollow concrete blocks are used for normal masonry when reinforced is used and it should not be leaner than 1 part cement of 8 parts room dry sand by volume. Compressive strength of concrete blocks or concrete masonry units is important to know the fitness of these in construction works for different reasons. Concrete masonry blocks are normally made of cement, amount and water which are usually comes in rectangular shape used in construction of masonry structure.

Patterns

20 full sized units shall be counted for length, wide and height and the center units shall be calculated for least thickness of face, shells and webs.

The minimal dimensions of concrete masonry block differ in three things such as:

  • Length: 400/500/600mm
  • Width: 200/100mm
  • Height: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 or 300mm.

Tests on Concrete Masonry Block Units

various tests are done on concrete masonry unit to check all the requirements, but among them three most applied tests are discussed in this article. The blocks of same mix shall be taken and classified to these following tests:

  • Dimension measurement for all types of blocks
In this step all the blocks should be verified and calculated by the length, width and height with steel scale. After checking if the block found hollow, then the thickness of the web and face shell are calculated with caliper ruler, next a report need to be prepared included average length, width and height of block and with least face shell and web thickness using recorded dimensions.

  • Density of the concrete masonry blocks (3 blocks)
At first the block has to be heated in the oven to 100°c, then the heated block need to be cooled in the room temperature. Next measure the dimensions of block to find out the volume and weight of it, the density of the block is calculated form a calculation and the standard density of 3 blocks will be the final block density. The formula is: mass/volume (kg/m3 )

  • Compressive Strength tests
the average compressive strength of concrete masonry block is calculated by taking 8 blocks and all of them should be tested with in 3days after gathered in lab where the age of the blocks should be 28 days. The compressive strength is calculated in the Compressive

Strength Testing machine which has tow steel bearing blocks, one is in fixed position on which the masonry unit is kept and the other movable one can transfer the load to the masonry unit while applying. When the masonry unit’s bearing area is more than the steel blocks’ bearing area some different steel plates will be used. Those plates are organized on steel blocks in a way that the centre of masonry unit agreed with the center of thrust of blocks, bearing area units are completed with the Sulphur and granular materials coating. Then the unit in testing machine is placed and one-half of the expected highest loads are followed at a minimum rate while the rest is applied in not less than 2 minutes. Te load of masonry unit fails and the highest load is divided by basic sectional area of unit will give the compressive strength of block. By applying the same method, find out the rest 7 blocks’ compressive strength and then calculate the average strength of the 8 blocks which will be the final compressive strength of concrete masonry unit.


Some Commercial Building techniques that changing Construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, April 9, 2018

Steel Beam Connections

Steel beam connections are used to join different members of structural steel frame work; Steel Structure Collections attach various members to make them a unit.

Steel connections

Connections are like the structural elements which are used to connect various members of structural steel frame work and Steel Structure is a collection of different member like Beams, Columns which are joined with one another at member ends fasteners to show a single composite unit.

Types

Generally steel beam connections are used in structures and all beam connections are categorized into two groups like framed and seated connections. The framed steel beam is connected to the supportive steel element by fittings and the seated steel beam is placed on seat like to the case where beam is located on masonry walls.
This article mainly focuses on the different types of steel beam connections with their working process, steel beam connections are divided into following types:

  • Bolted Seated Steel Beam Connection
When a beam is joined with a support, a column or a girder with web connection angles, then the joint is names as ‘framed’. Here every the connections must be plotted for the end reaction of the beam, its type, size and toughness of the fasteners and the capacity of bearing strength of core materials should be done. In these connections, the steel beams are connected in a way as supporting elements whether it is steel columns with the web connection angles and the minimum length of connection angle must be at least half of the beam clear web depth. The proportion is specified for right stiffness and solidity; there are different sizes of bolted framed connections besides their capability given by codes. This connection is required to enhance the rapidity of the design and minimum connection is enough to resist the applied load for making the design more economical.

  • Bolted Framed steel connections
In seated connection beams right sizes, capabilities and other data are filed in the AISC Manual, there are mainly two main types of bolted seated connections one of them is the soft bolted seat connections and hard bolted seat connection. When the reactions at the end of the beam are big then it is approved as hard or stiffened seat connections for their satisfactory capacity to oppose large forces. But the capability of soft or unstiffened seat connection is blocked for limited bending capacity of seat angle leg. The most helpful thing is that the beam in this connection can be invented economically and seat would give immediate support in the erection period.

  • Welded framed steel beam connection

This beam connection can be found in different sizes with their capabilities are available and supplied by codes. The weld of connection is bound to direct shave stress which caused by loads on the beam which beam affect weld pattern so the stresses are needed to be considered. The part of the welding is executed in a field where it seems difficult to get high quality weld for the movements of steel members caused by winds or other factors.

  • Welded seat steel beam connection
It is same as to bolt seat connection but used for bonding than bolts and the pressure on the beams affect the weld pattern curiously and create stress which need to be planned. The welded seat connections are of two types: unstiffened and stiffened, unstiffened is used for small loads and the stiffened is used to bear large loads. Use bolts to connect beam bottom border to the seat and the blots can be removed at their position after the end of their welded process. This connection is not requested from environmental point of view and worker as the connection can’t be erected easily.

  • End plate steel beam connection
This kind of connection is made through using the welding art and the end plate is joined to the beam by weld for its capability and size which are controlled by shear capacity of the beam web connected with the weld. The applied load on the connection at last of the member doesn’t have irregularities and the plate connections are of various types like flexible, semi-rigid and rigid. The fabrications and cuttings must be connected with the extreme care to stop errors but the end plate connections are not applicable to tall steel structures.

  • Special steel beam connections
These connections are used for the case where the preparations of the structural element are placed in a way that standard connections can’t be used. The connections can transfer moments into the columns as per degree of fixity of the connections and the higher degree of fixity of the beam connection is the greater ability to transfer the moments into the columns.

  • Simple, rigid and semi-rigid connections
Moment connections can transfer the forces in the beam sides to the column and this transfer moment must be provided for more and usually free of the shear connection needed to support the beam reaction. Simple, rigid and semi-rigid connections are designated simply to support beams and columns for shear only and leave the ends free to move under load. Besides carrying shear they provide enough rigidity to hold virtually unchanged angles between connected members.


Steel Beam Connections

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Saturday, April 7, 2018

Kinds of Bonds used in Brick Masonry

Bonds are like the arrangement or bricks to strong the imaginable interlocking and stop the flow of the vertical joints that can be done in various ways.

About Bond

Bond is the arrangement of either bricks or stones in every course, so to ensure the greatest imaginable interlocking and to escape the flow of vertical joints in two successive courses; both on the face and in the body of a wall. Generally brick bonds are used in masonry work and these bonds are like patterns in which bricks are laid and it can be applied in both brick walls and paving; besides that it also used to concrete block and other kinds of masonry construction.

Objectives of Bonds

A bond is given to achieve the following objectives-
  • The main objective is to provide a bond is to break the flow of the vertical joints in the serial courses both in length and thickness on masonry framework which will act as a bounded mass and its weight will be transformed uniformly to the foundations.
  • Secondly it can ensure lengthwise and sidelong strength of the structure.
  • It also provides comfortable appearance by laying bricks regularly.
  • It can do the masonry stuffs fast by captivating more masons on a job at a time.

Types of Bonds

The types are divided as per laying and bonding style of bricks in walls and the bonds in brick masonry is increased by the mortar filling between layers of bricks and in channels when bricks are laid near to each other and in layers in walls. In brick masonry the most used material is cement mortar; line and mud mortars are also used sometime. Here is the list of the types of bonds which are used in brick masonry:

  • Stretcher Bond
longer narrow faced brick is called as stretcher and this bond is known also as running bond which is created in the time when the bricks are laid with only their stretches, overlapping midway with the courses of bricks below and above. They come with the simplest repeating pattern but the limitation can’t make effective bonding with near bricks in full width thick brick walls. These bonds are generally used in the steel or reinforced concrete framed structures as outer facing and in cavity walls, boundary walls, gardens etc. Walls built with stretcher bonds are not enough strong to stand alone in longer span and height and need supporting structure like brick masonry columns at normal intervals.

  • Header bond
Header is the shorter square face of the brick measuring 9cm * 9cm and the header bond is known as heading bond where all the bricks in every course are placed as headers on the faces of the walls. This bond is used for the construction of walls with full brick thickness measuring 18cm and the overlap is similar to half width of the brick.

  • English bond
It has only one course of stretcher and a course of header above it where headers are laid centered on the stretches in course below and every alternate row is vertically aligned. Quoin closer is used in the beginning and the end of a wall after first header to break the flow of vertical joints and a quoin close is a brick cut lengthwise into two halves and used at corners in brick walls.

  • Flemish bond
    it is also known as Dutch bond and is created by laying alternate headers and stretchers in a single course and the next course of brick is laid such that harder lies in the middle of the stretcher in the course below. The thickness is minimum one full brick but the problem of using it is that it need to be aligned vertically for best effects and they are weaker than English bonds for load bearing wall construction.


  • Facing bond
in this bond, the bricks are arranged for thick walls where facing and backing are needed to be constructed with bricks of different thickness and the bond has heading and stretching corners nicely arranged.

  • Dutch bond
it is a change of the old English cross bond and has alternate courses of headers and stretchers; here the bricks are arranged in a form where every stretching course start at the quoin with a three-quarter bat and the alternate stretching courses has headers placed next to the three-quarter brick bat given at the quoin.

  • English cross bond
it is like English bond and is very strong to bear a good elevation where queen closer are beside the quoin headers.

  • Brick on edge bond
It is like English bond but the stretcher courses are replaced by laying the brick on the edges and header courses lay on the beds.

  • Raking bond
The bonding bricks are arranged in any angle which helps to improve the longitudinal strengthens of thick walls made in English bond.

  • Zigzag bond
It is like herring bone bond but the difference is that the bricks are laid in a zigzag style that used in brick paved flooring.

  • Garden wall bond
it is very much adopted for one brick thick that can act as a garden wall or a boundary wall and for garden wall bond; it is possible to build uniform faces for a wall without much labor or expense and is very strong also.


Kinds of Bonds used in Brick Masonry

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, April 6, 2018

Some information about Floor Screed

Floor screed is a type of building material used in construction to make the floors smooth and flat, the screed made with right quantity of cement and sand.

Introduction

It is a building material that is made from a 1:3 or 1:4.5 ratio of cement with sharp sand and can be applied in both solid-in-situ concrete ground floor slab and onto a formed concrete floor unit. This screed can be directly mixed to the base or laid uncombined onto a fitting damp proof coating which is laid over the slab and also be applied as a floating finish over a layer of firm padding of material. It is best to use with cast-in water pipes to give underfloor heating; they sometime left unfinished or floated to create a smooth surface upon which the specified flooring will be done later.
Some factory mixed the sand and cement to create the screeds and then deliver it to the site with additional quality assurance over site mixed screeds with more firm material. There are some manufacturers in the market, who made pumpable flowing screeds that flows to the last level of finishes and they are anhydrite compounds based on a calcium sulphate binder which can be applied faster than normal screeds in a minimum thickness.
So mainly floor scared is the foundation of the floor finish and immensely influences the work of floor finish; this article will show the different types of floor screed depending on some points that are:
  • Type
  • Material
  • Requirements
  • Procedure
  • Construction

Types of Floor Screed

There are many types of floor screed which are based on the needs, applications and the functionality of the floor like
  • Unbounded screed floor
  • Bonded screed floor
  • Floating screed floor
  • Heated screed floor

Materials for Floor Screed

The screed is dependent of some materials which are used in the time of mixing and they are- Cement, Clean and Sharp sand, Water and sometime accessories are added to know some properties like Polymer materials or metal mesh or glass. All these components are sufficiently mixed as per the prepared material proportions and if the thickness doesn’t match then the proportions will be changed; it is important to know that after drying the proportions will be reduced.

Requirements that a Floor Screed should meet

The floor screeds must have right thickness as per the screed type and application rates and the thickness is dependent on the type of the screed floor and the provided construction conditions.
  • The strength of the floor screed has to be 20MPa for domestic application and 30MPa for industrial usage.
  • The screeds have to firm and thick enough to provide right base to the floor finish.
  • It also e curried well to avoid shrinking and fast drying that causes cracks; that’s why it must be tested under all the shrinkage to prevent the cracks.
  • Beside all the above qualities, the surface of the floor screed has to be flat and smooth.

Procedure of Floor Screeding

  • Judging the surface of the base
  • Calculate materials that are used for screeding
  • Create the base and floor screed mixture
  • Using bonding agents
  • Place the floor screed mixture
  • Also properly cure the placed materials

Constructing a successful screed floor

  • Always select right and adjustable floor screed mixture
  • Then select right screed floor type
  • Now make right and fitted floor screed mixture
  • Then construct the floor screed with appropriate screed placement process
  • Choose right ways for floor screed protection

Some information about Floor Screed

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, April 5, 2018

The causes affecting the Degree of Earthquake damages to buildings

High rising buildings generally fall when the earthquake hits them and cause utmost destruction or damage with a loss of lives and the fall depends on several reasons.

Earthquake is really a destructive natural destroyer that is destroying some towns and cities continuously over the centuries and damaging them. This destruction for earthquakes can happen upon some conditions of ground or construction based mostly on sediments in flood plains, converted land or former landfill grows the effect of the vibrations though the harder rocks prevent the shaking amount. The result of the effect can be seen in a huge devastated way like damaging of lives and buildings and animals etc. in some cases the land may even dissolve like quicksand and make buildings sink.

Poor construction can make buildings more vulnerable for the earthquake damage and where the bricks have been held in place with the right mortar will survive long. Besides the construction, there are various other factors that are responsible for the damage of building for earthquake and they are breakable columns, stiffness elements, expandable ground floor, short columns, shapes, sizes, numbers of storeys, kind of foundation, location of the buildings, structural layouts etc.

Here all the above cause of damages is being discussed to give a clear overview of the problems and damages and the factors are also stated those can improve the degree of earthquake that damages the buildings. The factors are:

Difference between design and actual response range

Wrong measurement of excepted earthquake characteristics are used in the earthquake design of the form is both popular and difficult reason for the damage of the buildings.

Breakable columns

Most of the structures have been failed in earthquake as per the failure of column and the column may fail for decline of concrete that made cyclic loading and less number of ties fixed in the column at the important locations.

Irregular arrangement of hardness element in plan

Cores in structures are the main stiffness element and its location as building would influence the behavior of the structures when earthquake affects and make damage.

Adjustable ground floor

If the stiffness is decreased heavily of a structure then the stress falls on the structural elements of increased story may increase and fail.

Short columns

This reason is not very much familiar in comparison of ordinary column failure yet short column may fail in cutting in heavy manner and also make the structure fall.

Shape of the floor plan

It is said that the square shaped floor plan is the best insecure behavior than other shapes so the extent of building insecure damage is made by the floor shape plan.

Shape of the building in height

The normal upper storey have most insecure response capered with buildings which have upper storyes in the form.

Slabs support columns without beams

Flat slab system is the weakest structural system which does not have any good resistance against seismic effects and those system is very flexible and has low flexibility

Damages happen by previous earthquake

There are many buildings that have faced earthquakes previously and can face earthquakes again and will fail if the repairing had not done well. It is also seen that repairing a long ago can cause same damage though the methods have improved and the effects are also.

Strong concrete building with a frame structural system

this system is actually a base of weakness in buildings as it goes through many inter-storey drift by seismic excitation which needed more cost to repair.

Number of storyes

When the storeys number increases the chance of affected by earthquake gets high, high rises buildings’ storeys don’t have the strength to bear the capacity of the building.

Foundation types

The types of foundation raises the degree of earthquake damages in two forms – direct and indirect; for direct effect of foundation form it clear itself in number of characteristics and the failure of foundation member is rarely happening but leaves effect. On the other hand, the indirect one has out of plane movements of individual columns based in the case of isolated foundations.

Place of the connected buildings in the block

The location of the connected buildings on block affects on the structure and increases the fail of the buildings.

Slab levels of near structure

The impulse loading from adjacent buildings have a significant influence on the increment of the damages ; the increase of damages in structures with various floor level slabs are significantly greater than buildings with the same floor slab level.

Bad structural layout

The poor adjustment between architectural engineer and structural engineer at conceptual design phase can make bad structural layout.

Source: www.theconstructor.org/

The causes affecting the Degree of Earthquake damages to buildings


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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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