## Wednesday, May 31, 2017

This estimating spreadsheet is specifically created for designing truss. By using this spreadsheet one can design light gage truss on the basis of AISI S100/SI-10 & ER-4943P.
The following design criterion is required for truss analysis.
The intermediate, finite element analysis contains shear deformations with E & G equivalent to 29500 ksi & 11300 ksi.
There are various rotations at similar joint of web to chord, since web pinned to continued chord.
Top chord shall be affixed to sheathing prior to inclusion of vertical load.
This spreadsheet will be useful for defining joint deflections with finite

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, May 30, 2017

### Demonstration of center line method

This is another useful presentation from Parag Pal. The video shows the detailed information on Center Line Method.

Center line method is specifically applied for walls of equivalent cross sections. Here, the total centre line length is multiplied with breadth and depth of relevant item to determine the total quantity at once.

After the cross walls or partitions or verandah walls are attached with main wall, the centre line length becomes curtailed by half of breadth for every junction.

Such junction or joints should be cautiously taken into consideration at the time of measuring total centre line length. The method generates most precise estimates rapidly.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Monday, May 29, 2017

### How to design the rooms of a building with different standard & sizes

This construction video tutorial will teach you how to design a building with the allocation of different rooms with different sizes.
The video is supported with a detailed table that includes room names, standard area of the building floor, common building, minimum floor area etc.
For Dining room, standard area of the building floor should be 20 to 28 square meter, common building area should be 20 square meter, minimum floor area should be 13.5 square meter.
For Bed room, standard area of the building floor should be 15 to 25 square meter, common building area should be 15 to 20 square meter, minimum floor area should be 11 square meter.
For guest room, standard area of the building floor should be 9 to 10.5 square meter, common building area should be 15 to 20 square meter, minimum floor area should be 7 square meter.
For kitchen, standard area of the building floor should be 7 to 9 square meter, common building area should be 7 to 8.5 square meter, minimum floor area should be 5.5 square meter.
For store room, standard area of the building floor should be 7 to 9 square meter, common building area should be 5.5 to 6 square meter, minimum floor area should be 5.5 square meter.
For latrine and attached bath, standard area of the building floor should be 4.5 square meter, common building area should be 4.5 square meter, minimum floor area should be 2.8 square meter.

For latrine area without attached bath, standard area of the building floor should be 1.2 to 1.5 square meter, common building area should be 1.2 to 1.5 square meter, minimum floor area should be 1.5 square meter.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Friday, May 26, 2017

### Brief demonstration on counterfort retaining wall

This construction video is the part 2 series of retaining wall design. In this video, you will learn various aspects of counterfort retaining wall along with the details of stability checks.
The video includes brief calculation made for cantilever and counterfort wall.
In the counterfort retaining wall, the step and the base slab are connected unitedly with counterforts at proper gaps.

As a consequence of provision of counterforts, the vertical stem together with the heel slab performs as continuous slab, contrary to the cantilevers of cantilever retaining wall.

They are inexpensive for height in excess of about 6 m.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Thursday, May 25, 2017

### How to design and find out the size of rectangular open channel in Hydraulic Engineering

This construction video provides some useful tricks on how to design or find out the most economical segment toward rectangular open channel.
Open Channel Flow is described as fluid flow containing a free surface open to the atmosphere. The instances are streams, rivers and culverts not flowing full.
The video provides solution to the following problem :-
problem:--Find the most economical X-section of a rectangular channel to carry 0.3𝑚^3/sec of water when channel bed slope is 1:1000. assume chezy’s constant, C=60
In the solution provided, chezy’s formula as well as some condition of economical section is applied to obtain the size of the channel.
The Chezy formula is applicable to pipes having turbulent flow. In fluid dynamics, the Chézy formula defines the mean flow velocity of steady, turbulent open channel flow.
The formula is given as

• {\displaystyle v=C{\sqrt {R\,i}},\,}where
• {\displaystyle v}ν denotes average velocity [m/s],
• {\displaystyle C}C denotes Chezy's coefficient [m½/s],
• {\displaystyle R}R is the hydraulic radius (~ water depth) [m], and
• {\displaystyle i}i is the bottom slope [m/m].

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Wednesday, May 24, 2017

### Overview of Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement System for Cast-in-Place Concrete

This construction video tutorial provides the demonstration Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement. It belongs to a Transverse Reinforcement System for Cast-in-Place Concrete. It is specifically designed to improve the strength of punching shear concerning elevated concrete slabs and slabs on grade devoid of raising their thickness.

DSA rails consist of steel double-headed DSA Studs welded to a steel shape. The steel shape ensures the exact spacing and placing of the studs throughout their set up in concrete as per ASTM-A1044 standard. It should be used for both top and bottom installation.
Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement offers an easy and consistent solution toward punching and shear failure which may happen in elevated concrete slabs, slabs on grade and footings.
If DSA Punching Reinforcement is applied in elevated slabs like reinforced concrete slabs or post-tensioned slabs, DSA Punching Reinforcement system disregards the requirement for column capitals. Therefore, forming and concrete costs are minimized significantly.
DSA reinforced cast-in-place elevated slabs are designed slimmer to minimize the entire construction height. It leads to huge savings in construction and running costs. The DSA system also provides a ceiling with uninterrupted clearance facilitating adaptability and simplicity of planning and installation of building services.
The fabrication process for DSA studs is done with low carbon steel grades C1010 through C1020. DSA Punching Reinforcement system adheres to the standard speciﬁcation for steel stud assemblies for the shear reinforcement of concrete ASTM A-1044. It should be designed according to ACI 318-14 and CSA A23.3-14 which make it relevant in North America and Middle East.
Punching Reinforcement systems are also employed in foundations to curtail the thickness of footings, pile caps and slabs on grade. Other applications range from DSA rails are utilized as shear reinforcement in beams, walls and other concrete elements.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, May 23, 2017

### Variation among pad foundation, strip foundation and raft foundation

Shallow foundation is generally described as foundation that contains founding level below 3m from ground surface. Alternatively, when the breadth of the lower most part of the foundation is more than the depth of the lower most part of the foundation from the uppermost of the soil, i.e. Ground Level then it is defined as a Shallow Foundation. It transmits building loads to the earth adjacent to the surface. Shallow foundations comprise of spread footing foundations, mat-slab foundations, slab-on-grade foundations, pad foundations, rubble trench foundations and earthbag foundations.

Pad foundation stands for the foundation that is specifically developed for retaining concentrated loads out of a single point load like structural columns. Pad foundations are specifically designed to provide support to individual or multiple columns, scattering the load to the ground underneath. They are usually square or rectangular in plan, the plan area is defined by the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. The shape in plan will be determined by the arrangement of the columns and the load will be transmitted into the soil.
The thickness of the slab should be adequate to make sure that distribution of the load is perfect. The top of the pad should have been sloping (i.e. the pad is denser in the centre as compared to it is at the edge). It provides a cost-effective solution, though there are construction issues which are associated with casting the slope.

Strip foundation is utilized to provide support to a line of loads like load-bearing walls. As for example, closely-placed columns deliver the imperfect application of pad foundation and strip foundation may be a good choice.
Raft foundation comprises of a concrete slab which expands over the entire loaded area in order that loads from whole structure are expanded over a broader area that results in minimizing of the stress of foundation soils. Besides, raft foundation is useful for resisting differential settlement.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Monday, May 22, 2017

### Various aspects of Design Loads

This construction video is recorded on design loads. Design loads are essential while designing any building or civil structure. One can learn types of design loads and it’s various categories. You will also be familiar with dead loads values with adherence to the IS code 875-1987 part-1.

In architecture and engineering term, design load stands for the highest amount of stress that a structure has to withstand. Weight is one of the most important factors that should be taken into consideration for making calculation. Beside, weight, design load calculations should also include other types of forces that a structure has to undergo.

As for instance, bridges and tall buildings should have the capability to withstand strong winds as well as supporting their own weight along with the weight of people and objects that are on them or within them.

Perfect calculation of design load is very important to ensure that a structure is secured. If the design load is not computed, stability of structures, or even segments of structures, can be hampered. Unstable structure may collapse which can be deadly.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Saturday, May 20, 2017

### Some useful construction tips to provide clear cover for reinforced concrete structure

This construction video tutorial will provide detailed guidelines on how to provide perfect clear cover in reinforcement concrete structure.
With the intension of safeguarding the reinforcement from corrosion as well as arranging fire resistance to bars implanted in concrete, clear cover is set for Reinforced Concrete Structures.
Clear cover stands for the distance among C.G of reinforcement bars and bottom most point of concrete.
The thickness of cover is dependent on ecological conditions and nature of structural member.
The depth of concrete cover is calculated by applying a cover meter.
The clear cover that should be provided is determined by Indian Standards. IS 456:2000.

Watch following youtube video to learn the complete process :-

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Friday, May 19, 2017

### Analysis and Design of Concrete Retaining Wall

Concrete Retaining Wall Design: Before starting, initially, we should verify the constancy of the retaining wall. Besides, verification should be done for overturning and sliding prior to continue with the design.
The bearing under the foundation should also be examined. If the soil provides support to the wall, bearing pressure below the foundation of wall shall be under the acceptable bearing capacity.
To start with, you should inspect the retaining wall and determine the bending moments and shear forces with the use of an analysis software like SAP2000 or PROKON or any other software or with calculations by hand. If there are dissimilarities like steps in the retaining wall and the emphasis is given on stress variation of the wall, you can utilize software like SAP2000 or ANSIS.
Calculations by hand can be performed for basic retaining walls which do not contain lots of complications. As for instance, cantilever retaining wall is examined by making its behavior simple. You can imagine the boundary condition "fixed" at base to get the bending moments and shear forces of the wall. Once the wall forces are detected, you can get the forces of the base of the wall. The most suitable process will be applying a software to locate the bending moments and shear forces.

To know about the complete process, click on the following link. structuraldesignbs.blogspot.in

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Thursday, May 18, 2017

### Various types of loads acting on building structure

The types of external loads, operating on building and other structures, are categorized as the following :-
1. Static loads belong to the forces which are applied sluggishly and then turns out to be almost constant.
2. One instance is the weight, or dead load associated with a floor or roof system.
3. Dynamic loads fluctuate with time. They comprise of repeated and impact loads.
4. Repeated loads are forces which are used several times. These types of loads can make a difference in the magnitude, and occasionally also in the sense, of the internal forces. A good example is an off-balance motor.
5. Impact loads stand for forces through which energy is occupied in a short timespan by a structure or its components time. An instance is the falling of a heavy weight on a floor slab, or the shock wave emerged out an explosion striking the walls and roof of a building.
6. External forces are also categorized as distributed and concentrated.
7. Uniformly distributed loads belong to a distributed load that contains a constant value like 1kN/m. It’s magnitude stays uniform all through the length. Uniformly distributed load is generally denoted by W and is stated as intensity of udl over the beam, slab etc. The instance of this load is dead weight of a rolled-steel I beam.

8. Concentrated loads belong to forces containing such a small contact area that is omitted corresponding to the whole surface area of the supporting member. As for instance a beam supported on a girder can be taken, for all practical purposes, a concentrated load on the girder.
9. Another common category for external forces which are labeled as axial, eccentric, and torsional.
10. An axial load pertains to a force whose resultant goes over the centroid of a section under consideration and stands upright to the plane of the section.
11. An eccentric load stands for a force that stands upright to the plane of the section under consideration but not going through the centroid of the section, therefore bending the supporting member.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Wednesday, May 17, 2017

### You can’t download the spreadsheet but make necessary modification in the spreadsheet online as per your database. Only the figure in given in red color can be changed and the result will be reflected to all the cells.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, May 16, 2017

### Detail processes for creating the design of RCC Column with foundation

Reinforced Cement Concrete column is a part and parcel of RCC frame structured building.
Reinforced concrete foundations are designed on the basis of column loads and moments at base and the soil data.
It belongs to a vertical member that delivers loads from slab and beam directly to succeeding soil.
The entire building rests on columns. The collapsing of the most of the buildings occurs because of column failure. Beside design errors, substandard construction practice also leads to failure of column. So, it is mostly crucial to have a clear & perfect idea on the construction process of the RCC column.
In order to buildup RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Column, the following four stages of works are essential :-.

1. Column layout work
2. Column reinforcement work
3. Column formwork, and
4. Pouring concrete into column.

To learn the complete process for RCC Column Design with foundation, go through the following link. onlinecivilforum.com

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Monday, May 15, 2017

### How to derive formula for super elevation or road bending

By going through the following construction video, you can learn the tips for obtaining formula toward full super elevation of highway or road. This video is very useful for land surveying.
Full super-elevation stands for the amount with which the external edge of a curve located at a road or railway is grounded directly above the inner edge. Its units range from meter/meter or feet/feet.
Another definition of super-elevation is the vertical distance among the heights of inward and external edges of highway pavement or railroad rails.
In order to neutralize the consequence of centrifugal force as well as decrease the trend of vehicle to overturn and to slide laterally outsides, pavement outer edge is elevated in regard to inner edge. Consequently, delivering a transverse slope is called Super elevation.
The formula is used for full super elevation = h = Bv2/gR
Here B denotes breath of the road, v stands for speed of vehicle, g stands for acceleration (that is 9.8 m/s2) and R stands for radius of circular curve.

To know the detailed process, go through the following video.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Friday, May 12, 2017

### How to compute quantity of steel in column footing with BBS

This construction video tutorial will teach you how to estimate the steel quantity in column footing with bar bending schedule.

Column Footing stands for an independent footing or foundation under a column or either equivalent member for delivering the concentrated load by means of uniformly loads to the soil underneath in order that the bearing capacity of the soil is not surpassed and differential settling does not take place. The footing may come in square, rectangular or circular in plan.

The footing may be constructed with brick masonry, stone, R.C.C., steel grill-age etc on the basis of the load to be transferred as well as the bearing capacity of soil. As a result of low bending strength, the footings built with brick, stone or plain concrete need extensive depth to bear heavy loads safely.

The depth of plain concrete footing is minimized significantly with the arrangement of reinforcements at its base to withstand tensile stresses. R.C.C. column footings may com in circular, rectangular or square in plan. The footing is reinforced both-ways using mild steel ribbed bars which are arranged at exact angles to one another at similar distances apart.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Thursday, May 11, 2017

### Get Numerous Civil Engineering Notes Online

This construction video tutorial will demonstrate huge lists of competitive exam notes which are very useful for civil engineering PO exams, state civil engineering exams, PSC etc. These notes are hand written.

These notes can be useful for environmental engineering, irrigation engineering, design of reinforced concrete structure, steel structure, structural analysis, surveying etc.

To learn the detailed process, go through the following video.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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## Wednesday, May 10, 2017

### Brief overview of rolled steel sections in construction

Rolled steel sections are considered as the useful materials in steel construction. These are accessible in different forms.
Steel is one of the most vital building materials in construction industry. It has diverse applications.
On the basis of their utilization, various steel members are manufactured in the factories. The continuous casting molds devoid of any joints are used to cast rolled steel sections. Given below, details of various shapes or forms of rolled steel sections.
Types of Rolled Steel Sections:
• Angle sections
• Channel sections
• T- sections
• I-sections
• Round bars
• Square bars
Flat bars
Corrugated sheets
• Expanded metal
• Plates
• Ribbed bars (HYSD)
• Ribbed bars (mild steel)
• Thermo-mechanically treated bars
• Welded wire fabrics
Rolled Angle Sections: Angle sections are built in “L” shape. It comprises of two legs. Some angle sections include legs containing equivalent dimensions which are described as equal angle sections and some include dissimilar legs which are described as unequal angle sections.
Angle sections are mostly utilized for roof truss constructions and for filler joist floors.
Equal angle sections can be accessed with 20 mm x 20 mm x 3 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm x 25 mm along with their equivalent weights as 9 N and 736 N per meter length respectively.
Unequal angle sections can be accessed with 30 mm x 20 mm x 3 mm to 200 mm x 150 mm x 18 mm along with 11 and 469 N per meter length weight correspondingly.
Rolled Channel Sections: The channel section or C- section comprises of two equal flanges associated with web at both ends. Channel sections are widely utilized in steel framed structures.
They are presented with different sizes which vary from 100 mm x 45 mm to 400 mm x 100 mm. Equivalent unit weights belong to 58 N and 494 N per meter length relatively.

## Tuesday, May 9, 2017

### Some useful construction tips on concrete mix design

This construction video tutorial focuses on concrete mix design. In this video grades are taken as M 7.5, M10, M15, M20 and mix ratios for cement, sand and aggregate are taken as 1:4:8, 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3. The amount of water is required for amalgamating concrete in 50 kg cement.

Concrete mix design refers to the method of choosing the appropriate components (cement, sand and coarse aggregates) as well as their relevant proportions with the purpose of developing concrete by maintaining specific minimum strength & durability.
Objective of mix design
To make sure that the optimal ratios of the constituent materials is maintained to satisfy the need of the structure.
To obtain the preferred minimum strength in the hardened stage.

To obtain the needed minimum strength in the hardened stage.
To obtain the preferred strength in the specified environment conditions
To form concrete as inexpensively as possible.