Monday, January 30, 2017
By watching this exclusive construction video, you will be familiar with the method for measuring the weight of mild steel plate. The video is based on a MS square shaped steel plate and length of that plate is 1 meter, breadth is 1 meter and its thickness is 10 mm or 0.01 meter.
In order to find out weight, you should know the volume and density of the steel plate and then multiply volume with density i.e. volume x density.
Formula for detecting the volume = Length x Breadth x Height i.e. 1 x 1 x 0.01 m = 0.01 m3
Density of steel = 7850 kg/m3
Therefore, weight will be = 0.01 x 7850 = 78.5 kg
Wednesday, January 25, 2017
This construction video provides detailed information on slab reinforcement that is created with bar bending schedule (BBS).
Slab reinforcement stands for the method that is undertaken to bend reinforcing steel and transform into shapes necessary for building up reinforced concrete structure.
Bar bending schedule (aka schedule of bars) belongs to a list of reinforcement bars, a specified RCC work item. It is demonstrated in a tabular form for smooth graphical reference.
Saturday, January 21, 2017
This construction video is a part of technical lectures on Civil Engineering. The video will introduce you with the detailed processes for estimating cutting length of bent up bar in slab
If the reinforcing bars are fabricated with bends, the straight bar is primarily sliced to a length below the sum of the indicated dimensions of the bent bar. The variation among the detailed length and the cut length is defined as the "bend curvature deduction" and alternatively called as gain, creep, and gyp.
When the bent-up bars are supplied, their support to the shear resistance shall not be in excess of half that of the total shear reinforcement.
The general method of bending of a bar adjacent to a support is at an angle of 450. The angle of bend may set at 300 in shallow beams where actual depth is below 1.5 times its breadth. The objective of bend adjacent to a support is as below :-
To withstand negative bending moment happening at the region of the support to withstand shear force that is superior at the support.
Friday, January 20, 2017
A Bored Pile stands for a nondisplacement form of foundation and bored piling is a system that is applied for boring a spherical hole into the ground as well as setting up steel reinforcement and filling the bore hole by concrete to develop a pile. Boring is executed to the design depth with the use of a crane mounted or a track mounted hydraulic drilling rigs.
Bored piling is useful for withstanding heavy vertical loads generated in high building. Bored pile is a cast-in-place concrete pile that is casted on construction site.
Usually bored piling is undertaken on those high buildings or enormous industrial complexes, for which foundation should be strong enough to carry the load of thousands of tons, particularly in unsteady or tough soil conditions. Bored piling machine that contains specially designed drilling tools, buckets and grabs is used to cast bored piling. It is applied to take out the soil and rock. Generally it can drill into 50metres depth of soil.
Benefits of Bored Piling
- Capability to bear very high load / shear / moment capacity
- Inferior noise and vibration
- Ground is “visible” throughout construction that allows validation of design assumptions
- Capacity to deal with unfavorable ground along with natural or artificial obstacles
- Ability to drill into hard rock
- Can be built up to tight tolerances
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
Concrete and mortar are two most vital building elements for any construction work. But both the materials are different in nature. Go through the following article to know the fundamental discrepancies among concrete and mortar.
Concrete is a composite material produced from a mixture of sand, cement, aggregates and water in required proportions.
Concrete refers to a composite material that is formed with some basic elements like water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and amalgamated with a fluid cement that hardens in due course.
If aggregate is combined jointly with dry Portland cement and water, it produces a fluid mass that can be smoothly molded into shape. A chemical reaction happens between cement, water and other ingredients to develop a hard matrix that joins the materials together into a strong stone-like material. Sometimes, additives like pozzolans or superplasticizers are provided in the mixture to make the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material superior.
Mortar is developed by mixing cement, sand and water and applied to tie building blocks like stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units jointly as well as fill and close the uneven gaps among them.
VARIANCE AMONG MORTAR AND CONCRETE:
1. Concrete is developed by mixing cement, sand, aggregates and water, whereas the mortar is formed by mixing cement, sand and water.
2. Concrete is more durable as compared to mortar.
3. The water-cement ratio is greater in mortar. The water is utilized to hydrate the cement and retain the mix collectively. But the objective of concrete is to maintain the water-cement ratio as low as possible.
4. After mixing, Mortar becomes much condensed substance as compared to concrete. Mortar acts like a glue to fix the bricks together. Because of superior strength and longevity concrete is mostly recommended for all types of construction works like buildings, bridges, roads etc.
5. Concrete sustains for a long time but mortar should be substituted by every 20 – 30 years.
Article Source : www.dailycivil.com
Tuesday, January 17, 2017
This is a useful video for construction professionals. The video will teach you how to estimate weight of steel. In this video, two diverse formulas are applied – Density Method and D square /162 Method.
Density refers to the mass of an object that is divided with its volume. Density frequently contains units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Keep in mind, grams mean a mass and cubic centimeters mean a volume (the identical volume as 1 milliliter).
As density is mass per unit volume, the density of a metal is measured by submerging it in an identified amount of water and computing how much the water increases. It is the volume of the metal. Its mass is calculated with a scale. The unit for density is gm/cm3.
Monday, January 16, 2017
A truss is formed with an assembly of inflexible & elastic members which are connected as the triangles to perform like a beam. The tensile stress of mild steel is secure for working and it is approx. 20 times as compared to structural timber. Therefore, steel trusses are considered as cost-effective, particularly for largest extents. The angles are treated as the most vital elements for steel roof truss among different shapes of steel sections due to their capability to withstand both compressive and tensile stresses in an effective manner. The supplementary angles are created inexpensively as well as connected without any difficulty.
Benefits of steel roof truss as compared to timber truss are presented below:
1. Steel trusses last long as compared to timber trusses.
2. Steel sections that develop the truss are lightweight and are constructed in any preferred pattern to match the requirement of any architectural work.
3. As it is made with steel, the material is not damaged by white ants or other insects.
4. Steel trusses contain strong fire-resisting capacity as compared to timber trusses.
5. As there are no span limitations with steel trusses, they can be utilized for industrial buildings and various other structures where large areas can be covered devoid of any obstructions which may occur to columns etc.
6. The sections which develop a steel truss can be smoothly transported.
7. The sections are acquired in any preferred form or length to match the requirements and less wastage of the material occurs in cutting etc.
8. Due to their trouble-free erection methods, the advancement of roofing work with steel trusses can be done rapidly.
Article Source : www.dailycivil.com
Friday, January 13, 2017
A combined footing generally withstands the load of two or more adjoining columns. This kind of footing is offered under the following circumstances:
1) When the columns are very close to each other as a consequence their footing overlap.
2) When the bearing capacity of soil is fewer, necessitating more region under singular footing.
3) When the end column is near a property line so that its footing cannot be spread in that direction.
A combine footing may be of different in plan such as rectangular or trapezoidal. The goal is to obtain identical pressure distribution under the footing. For this the CG of footing are should coincide with the CG of the combine loads of the two columns. There are basically four sorts of combine footing ordinarily used. They are as follows:
1) Combine rectangular footing
2) Combine trapezoidal footing
3) Strap beam footing
4) Raft footing.
To get better understanding not only it is mandatory to download pdf and but this numerical is of combine trapezoidal footing which is must watch also.
Thursday, January 12, 2017
In this session of learning we feature an estimating sample which is specially designed for painting contractors and also it is very beneficial.
The fastest, easiest and most complete estimating software there is for Painting Contractors. In this video you will learn to utilize the tools for estimating too.
This lesson is absolutely perfect for painting contractors or any subcontractor trade for that matter. This estimation is very well performed with proper demonstration it will certainly help contractors to cut the estimating time in half.
Watch the detailed estimating procedure below:
Wednesday, January 11, 2017
Definition of scaffolding
The impermanent framework containing platforms at various stages which permits masons to sit and continue their construction work at different height of building is termed as scaffolding. Scaffolding is required for masons to sit and put construction materials when the height of wall, column or any other structural members of a building exceeds 1.5m. It offers a temporary and a safe working platform for different types of work such as construction, maintenance, repair, access, inspection, and so forth.
Divisions of Scaffolding:
There are the following various divisions available:
Standards indicate to the vertical member of the frame work that is used to support on the ground.
Ledgers are the horizontal members which are running equivalent to the wall.
Braces are diagonal members running or fixed on the standard to provide stiffness to the scaffolding.
While both the ends of put logs are sustained on ledgers, then they are called transoms.
Boarding is a platform which is horizontal to support workmen and elements which are supported on the put log.
Guard rails are supplied at the working level similar to a ledger.
Classification of Scaffolding
Scaffolding can be categorized into various kinds which are described below in a nutshell:
For brick masonry works single scaffolding is widely used. This type of scaffolding contains a single framework of standards, putlogs, ledgers, etc. Standards are placed at a distance of about 1.2m from the wall at 2-2.5 m interval and are attached by ledgers at a vertical interval of 1.2 to 1.5m. One end of putlog is on the ledgers and the other one in the hole left in the wall at an intermission of 1.2 to 1.5m.
Double scaffolding is usually used for stone masonry works. Stipulation of holes to withstand putlogs is tough enough, so double scaffolding is preferred containing two rows of standards segregated by ledgers. The first row of the scaffolding is located at 20-30 cm away from the wall and the next row is kept 1m away from the first row. Transoms are situated on the ledgers and the cross braces in the scaffolding assists to build them more powerful and durable.
Steel scaffolding is similar to mason scaffolding. It consists of steel tubes instead of wooden members. In such scaffolding, standards are placed at a space of 3m and are connected with the help of steel tube ledgers at a vertical interval of 1.8m.
Tuesday, January 10, 2017
A deep foundation means a type of foundation that disperse building loads to the earth more distant down from the surface, what a shallow foundation perform, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A pile refers to a perpendicular structural element of a deep foundation, directed or drilled deep into the ground on the building site.
Deep foundations are set up too intensely under the finished ground surface because of their base bearing capability that can be influenced with surface conditions. It is generally remained at depths >3 m under finished ground level.
Deep foundation is designed to bear loads from a structure via frail compressible soils or fills on to robust and less flexible soils or rocks at depth, or for functional reasons.
If, the strata of good bearing capability does not exist adjacent to the ground, the foundation of the structure should be rooted deep to facilitate obtaining a bearing stratum that is appropriate in all respects.
Besides, there are other conditions for which deep foundations are essential for the consistency and longevity of a structure. Generally, the deep foundations are essential for the various types of constructions like piles, caissons and basement or hollow box foundation.
A pile refers to a long cylinder of a solid material like concrete that is digged into the ground to provide a strong support for structures constructed on top of it.
Pile foundation is useful when the structure can’t resist load due to low & insufficient bearing capacity of soil. This happens because of the soil condition or the order of bottom layers, type of loads on foundations, conditions at site and operational conditions. Pile foundations are formed with wood, concrete or steel and can be either precast or cast on site in case of concrete.
To gather more information, visit civilengineeringdaily.com
Monday, January 9, 2017
This construction video is based on Beam Reinforcement Details. By watching this video, one will be familiar with Bar Bending Schedule of Beam with some easy to follow processes.
Reinforcement in beam
The role of reinforcement is to withstand tensile stresses because of bending and shear in beams for singly reinforced sections. But some factors like architectural reasons or basement floors can limit the depth of section. Therefore, the beam section is designed as doubly reinforced to withstand tensile and compressive stresses and delivered with reinforcement in compression face.
Bar Bending Schedule for RCC Beam
Bar bending schedule is used to make the reinforcement calculation toward reinforced concrete beam. It presents the details of reinforcement cutting length, type of bends and bend length.
The following article will provide you more information on Bar Bending Schedule For RCC Beam. theconstructor.org
Saturday, January 7, 2017
Rebar which is also addressed as reinforcing bar is a key element of reinforced concrete. It is typically structured from ridged carbon steel; the ridges give frictional adhesion to the concrete. Rebar is used for the reason that even though concrete is very tough in compression it is in effect without strength in tension.
One of the most extensively used modern building materials is reinforced concrete. Concrete is defined as an “artificial stone” achieved by mixing cement, sand, and aggregates with water. Fresh concrete can take any kind of shape, giving it an intrinsic benefit over other materials.
The reinforcement in concrete possibly will be simple bar or series of bars, bend to a given schedule which known as bar schedule and tied in accordance with the reinforcement drawings with stirrups.
Watch the full demonstration about usage of reinforcement in concrete.
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Thursday, January 5, 2017
This construction video will introduce you to step-by-step by procedures for estimating the bricks of a wall. The video will provide useful information to select a brick size, lay out modular dimensions with the preferred size as well as generate a materials estimate for brick and mortar.
Brick are formed with different types of sizes and placed in the diverse patterns. Most patterns of brickwork abide by a common module that allows easy dimensioning of the brickwork and any masonry openings.
Usually, it becomes easier for the designers to reduce the number of cuts of entire brick by dimensioning to a module. With a clear idea on the size of the brick and bond pattern, it is possible to produce an estimation of the number of brick and amount of mortar required for the project.
The measurements and dimensions equal to brick manufactured mainly in the United States to a standard module of 4 in. (102 mm). Brick manufactured for projects that needs metric dimensions, generally comply with a module of 100 mm (3.94 in.).
There are different sizes of brick and each size has different utility. As for instance, larger brick are built up to upsurge bricklaying economy, and thinner brick facilitates saving resources.
There exist three dimensions for a brick – width alias thickness, height and length. Even though brick is placed in six dissimilar orientations, these dimensions can be applied to a brick that is placed as a stretcher. Height and length are often known as face dimensions, as these dimensions are applicable when the brick is placed as a stretcher.
A brick contains three various sets of dimensions - nominal, specified and actual. Proper care & perfectness should be taken so that any confusion can be evaded throughout design and construction.
Wednesday, January 4, 2017
A shallow foundation is defined as the foundation that transmits the building loads to the earth adjacent to the surface. It’s depth is equivalent to or under its width.
Categories of shallow foundation:
1. Spread footingThe role of Spread footing is to extend the super imposed loads of the structure over a extensive zone.
Spread footing is subcategorized as below :
• Single footing for a column.
• Stepped footing for a column.
• Sloped footing for a column.
Concrete is utilized to create the base of these types of footings.
• Wall footing without steps and with steps.
• Grillage foundationgrillage foundation is considered as most cost effective while transmitting the heavy structural loads concerning a column to the soil of low bearing capacity. Depth of such a foundation is restricted to 0.9 to 1.6 meter.
2. Combined footing
The combined footing is developed for two or more columns.
Shape of combined footing is balanced in such a ratio so that the center of gravity of the supporting area remains consistent with the center of gravity of the two column loads. It is formed as either rectangular or trapezoidal.
A combined rectangular footing is useful where both the columns bear identical load or interior column bears superior load. A combined trapezoidal footing is arranged under any situations of loading.
3. Strap footing Strap footing is undertaken when two or more footings are associated with a beam. It is required when the distance among the columns is so excessive that a combined trapezoidal footing turns to be little constricted, containing great bending moments.
4. Mat or Raft foundation Mat or raft foundation is described as a consolidated reinforced concrete slab that covers the entire region of the bottom of the structure.
Mat or raft foundation is useful in the following conditions :-
• If the soil located below contains bearing capacity as well as the building loads are substantial.
• If the combined area of individual footing exceeds half of the total area of the structure, then application of mat or raft foundation will be cost effective.
Article Source : www.civilengineeringterms.com
Monday, January 2, 2017
L & T - Learning Technology is a treasure trove for civil engineering students and civil engineering users. This channel offers exclusive and noteworthy technical lectures on "Civil Engineering" which are unconditionally beneficial for construction professionals too.
Here in this video the presenter of this presentation portrays what is 1.54 factor in concrete during calculation of wet volume to dry volume.
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