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Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Various types of tests conducted to verify the quality of aggregates in road work

Aggregate is a vital element in pavement construction. The load transfer capacity of pavements is significantly impacted by the aggregated. So, it is recommended to examine the aggregates comprehensively prior to utilize them in the construction site.
The aggregates should contain the properties like durable and long-lasting with perfect shape and size so that the pavement can function monolithically. Aggregates are evaluated for strength, toughness, solidity, shape, and water absorption.
In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, The following tests are conducted to check whether the aggregates are suitable to be utilized in pavement construction:

In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement construction, The following tests are conducted to check whether the aggregates are suitable to be utilized in pavement construction:
1.CRUSHING TEST: Crushing under compressive stress is a model to check the eligibility of pavement material for getting passed or failed. A test is organized with IS: 2386 part-IV and applied to find out the crushing strength of aggregates. The aggregate crushing value offers a relevant measure of resistance to crushing under increasingly employed crushing load.
2.ABRASION TEST: Abrasion test is accomplished to examine the rigidity of aggregates as well as determine whether they can be used for various pavement construction works. Los Angeles abrasion test is mostly suitable for executing the hardness property and it is implemented in India (IS: 2386 part-IV).
3.IMPACT TEST: The aggregate impact test is accomplished to verify the resistance to impact of aggregates. Aggregates which have passed 12.5 mm sieve and conserved on 10 mm sieve is filled with a cylindrical steel cup having internal dia 10.2 mm and depth 5 cm that is connected to a metal base of impact testing machine. The material is covered with 3 layers where each layer is tamped for 25 numbers of blows. Metal hammer having weight 13.5 to 14 Kg is set to drop with a free fall of 38.0 cm through vertical guides and the test specimen is dependent on 15 numbers of blows.
4.SOUNDNESS TEST: Soundness test is conducted to analyze the resistance of aggregates against weathering action, by carrying out accelerated weathering test cycles. The Porous aggregates is dependent on freezing and thawing is liable to decompose beforehand. To determine the stability of such aggregates, they are dependent on a faster soundness test as stated in IS: 2386 part-V.
5.SHAPE TESTS: The particle shape of the aggregate mass is set with the proportion of rough and enlarged particles in it. Large and enlarged aggregates may be damaged to higher workability and stability of mixes.
6.SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION: The design of concrete and bituminous mixes is mostly based on the properties like specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates. The specific gravity of a solid refers to the proportion of its mass to that of an equivalent volume of distilled water at an indicated temperature. As the aggregates may include water-permeable voids, so the following two measures of specific gravity of aggregates are utilized:
1. Apparent specific gravity and
2. Bulk specific gravity.
7.BITUMEN ADHESION TEST: Bitumen is compatible with all general types of road aggregates on condition that they are dry and do not contain dust. Without water, no adhesion issue of bituminous construction occurs.
If the aggregate is wet and cold, the adhesion issue may happen. This issue can be handled by eliminating moisture from the aggregate by drying and raising the mixing temperature. Besides, the existence of water leads to removal of binder from the coated aggregates. This problem happens if bitumen mixture is absorbent to water.
To get more information, click on the following link civilblog.org/
Various types of tests conducted to verify the quality of aggregates in road work

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PUBLISHED BY
RAJIB DEY
WWW.CONSTRUCTIONCOST.CO
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Monday, August 14, 2017

The duties and responsibilities of civil engineers

The main objective of civil engineers is to plan, design, build, operate and maintain roads, bridges, dams, water supply schemes, sewerage systems, transportation, harbors, canals, dockyards, airports, railways, factories and large buildings.

Civil engineers generally render their jobs in the following sectors - structural, water resources, soil and foundation, transport, airport, town planning or construction.

Duties of an airport engineer:
a) Having expertize in producing designs for airports, hangars and control towers
b) Administers the construction, maintenance and repair of runways, considering the factors like weight, size and speed of aircraft
c. If any technical issue arises throughout construction, guides contractors to solve the issue

Duties of a geotechnical/soil engineer:
a. Examines projected construction sites to determine the conditions of soil and foundation with by initiating drilling and sampling programs
b. Monitors and takes part in job site and laboratory testing of soils, and ensures that test equipment and machinery is arranged perfectly
c. Creates reports of test results and suggests proposals for providing the solution to engineering issues given in test reports
d. Creates specifications of soil mixtures which can be utilized in roads, embankments and other construction, and measures and provides suggestions on the required slope at cuttings and the density of soil dams and retaining walls.

Duties of a harbor engineer
a. designs and manages the construction of harbour facilities like breakwaters, navigation aids, navigation channels, jetties, wharves, heavy-duty pavement surfaces, cargo sheds and bulk handling plants for grain, ore and other cargo
b. Makes sure that the designs are created according to the needs of safety and serviceability
c. Optimize the use of funds and materials to fulfill the safety and serviceability requirements.

Duties of a harbor engineer:
a) Having expertize in evaluating population and growth statistics and traffic patterns and volume to fulfill the needs of future project
b. Discusses with government officials and other specialists to make the design perfect and secured traffic systems
c. Reviews roadway and embankment design, the geometry of highway interchanges and the maintenance of facilities like culverts and overpasses.

To gather more information, click on the following link civilengineerblog.com

The duties and responsibilities of civil engineers


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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, August 11, 2017

Brief explanation of rebaring method in reinforced concrete construction

Rebaring technique in reinforced concrete construction stands for a process that is undertaken for fabricating and arranging of reinforcement bars perfectly based on the design and drawings intended for RCC works.
It is known fact that concrete is very durable in compression and weak in tension. The reinforcement bars alias rebars are strong in tension and these are combined with concrete to employ its tension property.
The responsible engineer produces the calculation of reinforcement bar for a reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us the particular details of the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape and size of each bar for each work.

The responsible engineer produces the calculation of reinforcement bar for a reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us the particular details of the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape and size of each bar for each work.
Various types of loads like tension, compression, lateral, horizontal and torsion are available which develop from pressure. To determine the strength of concrete, you have to find out whether concrete can withstand these loads or not.
The strength obtained by the R.C.C structure is based on the method and the techniques to be used for setting up the reinforcement bar. The reinforcement bars are primarily patterned over its surface to allow perfect bonding with the concrete.
Importance of Rebaring Technique in Reinforced Concrete Construction: The steel reinforcement usually is segregated into two categories i.e.
• Primary Reinforcement or Main Steel reinforcement
• Secondary reinforcement or distribution reinforcement
The objective of applying main steel reinforcement bars in R.C.C structures is to maintain resistance capacity for withstanding the entire design loads delivered to it. The secondary reinforcement bars are primarily used to maintain longevity and elegant look.
This reinforcement ensures to keep resistance for localized areas like limited cracking. These can also combat the stresses produced because of divergences in temperature.
The main bars which are used with indicated diameter, are bent at the ends. The stirrups belong to reinforcements which are arranged laterally, to place the main bars of the structural elements like beams and columns, in exact location.
The stirrups may come in various shapes like circular, square, rectangular, helical or diamond on the basis of the cross-section of the structural element. The reinforcement bars in the corners may appear as L – shaped.
The caging for the structural element to be decided should be perfectly fastened so as to keep the position of each bar unchanged throughout concreting. This is a check that should be always maintained throughout concreting otherwise it can hamper the stability of the structural member.
The rebars are primarily arranged at the junctions where the formwork of the structural element is closed and at the point where a new structural element should be fastened with the former one.




To gather more information, click on the following link theconstructor.org
Brief explanation of rebaring method in reinforced concrete construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, August 10, 2017

MasterRC Pile Cap Designer – An exclusive software for designing & detailing of normal shaped pile caps

MasterRC Pile Cap Designer is an intuitive software package for structural engineering works. It can be used for the analysis, design, detailing and scheduling of commonly shaped pile caps for 1 to 9 piles in quickest possible way.

The design and detailing results can be shown on screen in the software and updated with each key pressed for interactive structural design in perfect way.

With graphically defined output, it is possible to instantly observe the detailing of pile cap. offers The quick assessment of the thorough and perfect design can be achieved with the clear and exact calculation output. MasterRC Pile Cap Designer reduces the strain for the time consuming task of designing and detailing pile caps by providing innovative design options to keep superior control over the design progression.
The software offers the following functionalities :-
• Design pile caps on the basis of bending theory or a truss analogy method
• Abides by the conventions set by Whittle and Beattie (Concrete, 1972)
• Based on deep Beam Theory, deep beams are designed perfectly
• Any steel that exists outer the 3 diameter bands, is overlooked in design
• The truss analogy is done with concrete compression
• Design is made adhering to BS 8110 & SABS 0100
• Scheduling to BS 4466, BS 8666 or SABS 82
• Interchange among Design Codes to compare results
• Improved shear stress capacity


To get more information, click on the following link www.masterseries.com

MasterRC Pile Cap Designer – An exclusive software for designing & detailing of normal shaped pile caps


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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Some crucial points to be considered before purchasing cement bags for jobsite

Cement is considered as one of the most vital construction elements in modern construction. If the strength of the cement is good, the structure will also be stronger and long-lasting.

The cost of cement is also higher as compared to other construction materials (Coarse aggregates, fine aggregates etc.) and the cement plays an important role in determining the overall project cost.


There are several manufacturers for cement. Be careful before purchasing any cement bag as sometime it is found that the cement bags delivered to jobsite are duplicates. So, it is necessary to verify some basic standard specification prior to purchase cement bags. Given below, the detailed information which are generally printed on a standard cement bag. While buying or obtaining cement bags, these information should be tallied carefully:-

01. Check the manufacturer’s name and his registered trade-mark
02. Black colored ISI mark should have been printed on the cement bags. It complies with each requirement of the specifications.
03. The words ‘Ordinary Portland Cement, 53 Grade ’or‘Ordinary Portland Cement, 53-S Grade or Portland Pozzolana Cement whichever is relevant should be mentioned in the bag.
04. Net quantity of cement in kg should vary from 25 Kg, 50 Kg etc.
05. Brand of cement
06. Verify the MRP (Maximum Retail Price) of bag
07. The words ‘Use no Hooks’ or symbol should be given in the bag.
08. Batch/control unit number regarding week, month and year of packing should be mentioned.
09. Address of the manufacturer should be provided.
10. Type and proportion of performance improver(s) should be included, in a case of inclusion of performance improvers.

11. Specific IS code number should have been printed on the cement bags. i.e. if your cement bags belong to OPC 53 grade cement, “IS-12269-1987” should have been printed on the cement bags and for Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) cement bags, “IS 1489-1991” should be printed on the cement bags.

Some crucial points to be considered before purchasing cement bags for jobsite


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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Details of technical specifications of bitumen macadam & bitumen concrete for any road work

This construction video briefly explains the technical specification for bitumen macadam and bitumen concrete essential for any road work.

Bitumen Macadam alias Asphalt Concrete is formed by blending aggregate, filler and bitumen and come in solid, medium or open graded on the basis of the end application.

Macadams are categorized into three primary layer categories like Base, Binder and Surface Course. It is applied as a binder course for roads where lots of heavy commercial vehicles pass through as well as a closed-graded premix materials exist with voids content 5-10 per cent. It has strong and long-lasting surface.
Bituminous concrete refers to a sort of construction material that is employed for paving roads, driveways, and parking lots. It is formed by mixing stone and other forms of aggregate materials combined jointly through a binding agent. This binding agent is known as "bitumen" and is a by-product of petroleum refining. It contains a dense, sticky texture like tar once heated, then develops a thick solid surface as soon as it gets dried. Bituminous concrete is also extensively recognized as asphalt in various parts of the globe.
This material does not include cement. It has typical black appearance. It is frequently placed right over a gravel base layer to build up new roads and parking lots, but may also be poured over prevailing concrete to patch-up or smooth out bumps and voids.
As soon as the bituminous concrete are poured onto the roadway, the surface is leveled and compacted through a large paving machines.
For Bituminous Macadam :-
1) Grade of bitumen should be vary from 60 to 70
2) Temperature at different stages :-
a) At the time of blending materials maximum temperature should be 1650C
b) At the time of laying, the temperature should be 1250C
c) At the time of rolling, the temperature should be 900C

3) Levels (tolerance) – At the time of rolling, the layers should be +6 M to -6 M.
4) Field Density Test – Here, compaction should be 98%; 1 test per 250 m2 of area.

To get the complete details, watch the following video.

Read Continue

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Monday, August 7, 2017

The uses of excavation supports or earth retaining structures

Excavation support or earth retaining structures are vital where deep excavation is created and arrangement of necessary slope is not possible. Given below, the details of different types of excavation supports.
What Are Excavation Supports?
Usually, to develop a structure either over the ground or underneath the ground, excavation of soil should be arranged in the ground.
The excavation may come in the form of shallow or deep on the basis of our need. But when the soil is dug deeply, there is a chance for collapsing of the soil from the sides of excavated area because of low strength.
To get rid of this issue and to create the cut vertically perfect, some temporary earth retaining structures known as excavation supports are essential.
The soil cut failure occurs if the limit of excavation surpasses its safe height limit and it is subjected to unconfined compressive strength of soil and cohesion.
From the table, given below, the safe height limit for various soil types are given on the basis of their unconfined compressive strength and cohesion limits.
Types of Excavation Supports: Usually, the following methods are mostly used for providing excavation supports-
• Soldier pile and lagging
• Soil nailing
Soldier Pile and Lagging: Soldier piles refer to I-sections which comprise of web among two flanges. These I-sections are drilled into the ground encompassing the boundary of an excavation. The piles are delivered to the point slightly under the necessary excavation depth.
The concrete with poor strength is utilized for the purpose of grouting of piles. The gap among each two nearby piles is restricted to 10 feet. Once that exaction is completed, the flanges of piles provide good support to the surrounded soil.
Wood lagging is applied among the piles. The lagging comprises of long timber sheets or planks which are arranged behind the front flanges of piles to provide well support to the soil among the piles.
The timber contains 2 to 4 inches depth, there, some excavation should be arranged by hand behind the front flange. To create stable bond among horizontal wood sheets and front flange, welded studs, clips etc. are utilized.
The uses of excavation supports or earth retaining structures

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Saturday, August 5, 2017

Reinforcement details for slabs-on-ground with crack control factors

While designing the slabs, which are built up on ground, the crack control factors should be taken into account. Given below, reinforcement details for slabs-on-ground.
The density and the design of the slabs-on-ground are dependent on the cracks which are developed because of the external loading. The calculation for slab thickness is made on the basis of the suppositions of a slab being unreinforced and un-cracked.
For specific situations of slabs on ground, the steel reinforcement can offer a great solution. The characteristics of this method contains the following :-
1. The limiting of cracks occur because of shrinkage
2. Apply bigger joint spacing that is larger than the unreinforced slabs
3. The possibilities for cracks development may be avoided by provision for moment capacity and constancy for those areas.
4. Cracking can’t be resisted with the integration of reinforcement. These elements allow in minimizing or adjusting the produced crack width by genuinely raising the frequency of cracks that is created.
If a reinforcement design is proportioned and arranged perfectly, it can allow to restrain the width of the crack significantly and therefore the serviceability period of the slab is not impacted.
Thickness Design Methods for Slabs-on-Ground Construction
When reinforcement in the slab design is applied increasingly, the un-cracked strength of the slab is slightly affected. The various methods for thickness design like Pickett’s Analysis Method (PCA), WRI (Wire Reinforcement Institute) Design Method and COE methods can be employed for creating the design of slabs on ground with reinforcement.
Reinforcement for Slabs-on ground for Crack Width Control Only
The width of crack can be restrained by reinforcement on the basis of the two factors like the joint spacing and the thickness of the slab. Otherwise we can define the crack width control as a function of joint space and slab thickness.
There should be a minimum steel ratio of 0.5% of the slab cross section to facilitate the saw cut of contraction joints to be removed.
When the reinforcement is arranged, it is suggested to set the reinforcement bars nearer to the surface of the slab top surface devoid of compromising the minimum concrete coverage over the reinforcement.
Reinforcement details for slabs-on-ground with crack control factors

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, August 4, 2017

7 Basic Tests of Bricks to ensure it’s quality

This construction video tutorial briefly explains what the most important brick test procedures are generally undertaken in the construction jobsite.
The details of the tests are given below :-

Compressive Test – It is performed to verify the strength of a brick. Under this test 5 samples of bricks are chosen randomly and sent them to laboratory and apply pressure on various bricks through a crushing machine. Now, take the average of all the results produced. If the averages is similar to 3.5 N/mm2, the quality of the bricks are good.
Water absorption Test – Under this test the bricks are selected in completely dry condition and taken their weight as W1. Then submerge them in water for 24 hours. Again, taken their (wet bricks) weight after 24 hours and named them as W2. Now find out the average with the following formula :
Water Absorption % = W2 – W1/W1 x 100
The recommended absorption rate should be between 15% – 20% for a good quality brick.
Impact Test – This test ensures the proper bond in a brick so that it can’t break easily. Under this test few bricks are selected and dropped them from a height of 1 meter.
If the bricks are broken, then impact test will come as failed. Contrarily, if these bricks are not broken, the test result will be considered as passed and the bricks are considered as good quality bricks.
Dimension Tolerance Test – In this test shape, size and colors of the bricks are checked. Under this test, 20 bricks are selected and arranged in a straight line. Then we take a sample of standard brick and tally it’s size, shape and color with the bricks arranged in a straight line. If they match with the sample bricks, the bricks should be treated as good quality bricks.
Soundness Test – In this test two are chosen randomly and hit with each other, if metallic sound is produced and the bricks remain unbroken then these bricks are considered as good quality bricks.
Hardness Test – In this test, a metal or other object is used to put scratches on the bricks. If scratches are not produced, then these bricks are hard and treated as good quality bricks.
Structure Test – In this test, a brick is chosen and broken from the middle, if there are no cracks, holes, impurities found inside the bricks, then the structures are strong and these bricks are treated as good quality bricks.

To watch online demonstration, go through the following video tutorial.

Read more

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Thursday, August 3, 2017

Common types of pipe fittings in a plumbing system

In this construction video tutorial, you will gather knowledge on various types of pipe fittings which are generally utilized in plumbing system. The video is very useful for the mechanical engineers and other construction professionals.
The role of a fitting in pipe systems is to attach straight pipe or tubing sections, adjust with various sizes or shapes and for other purposes, like regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.

In a plumbing system, the following types of fittings are used :-
Elbow – An elbow is set up among two lengths of pipe (or tubing) to facilitate changing the direction of flow. Normally, there are different types of elbows like 90° or 45° or 22.5°angle. The ends are machined for butt welding, threaded (generally female), or socketed. When the sizes for ends vary, it is called a reducing (or reducer) elbow.
Reducer – A reducer is provided for accommodating a change in pipe size to match hydraulic flow requirements of the system or adjust with current piping of a diverse size. Generally reducers remain concentric, but eccentric reducers are also utilized if required to sustain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level.
Coupling – A coupling attaches two pipes. If their sizes fluctuate, the fitting is called as a reducing coupling, reducer, or an adapter. Two types of couplings are available like “regular" and "slip".
A regular coupling contains a small ridge or stop inside, to avoid over-insertion of a pipe, and consequently under-insertion of the other pipe segment (which may occur in a defective connection). A slip coupling alias a repair coupling is purposely developed devoid of this internal stop, to facilitate it for being slipped into place in rigid locations.
Union - A union is required to disconnect the pipes securely for maintenance purpose as well as for substituting the fixtures. With union, connection and disconnection can be smoothly done several times as per requirement. It comprises of three parts like a nut, a female end and a male end. If the female and male ends are united, the joint is sealed with nuts by pressing the two ends firmly together.
Tee - A tee is applied to unite (or separate) fluid flow. There are female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet for it. It is possible to attach pipes having various diameters or adjust the direction of a pipe run, or both.
Cross – Crosses contain one inlet and three outlets (or contrary), and frequently comprise of solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. Cross fittings may strain pipes when temperature fluctuates as they are situated at the center of four connection points.
Plug - A plug sets within the pipe segment or fitting to which it is associated. In a threaded plumbing system, plugs contain male threads. Different plug types are available which range from mechanical, pneumatic-disk, single-size pneumatic rubber, multi-size pneumatic and flow-through, and high-pressure.
Cap - Caps, normally liquid- or gas-tight, provide a cover to the open end of a pipe. A cap is connected with the outside of a pipe, and may contain a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. The outside of an industrial cap may come in various shapes like round, square, rectangular, U- or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip.

To gather more information, watch the following exclusive video tutorial.

Read more

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Benefits of concrete covers blocks in RCC work

This construction video tutorial will guide you to make concrete cover block or rebar spacer at a reasonable cost.
A rebar spacer belongs to a object that fastens the reinforcing steel or "rebar" in reinforced concrete structures since the rebar is amassed in place before the pouring of final concrete. The spacers are remained in place for the pour to set the reinforcing in place, and turn into a permanent part of the structure.

When RCC work is going on, implanting steel in concrete (called as cover) is a vital process for resisting rebar from decaying as well as arranging fire protection to the rebar. If the proposed cover is not arranged, the rebar will start to decay in due course of time and will lead to collapsing of the structure beforehand. So, cover blocks can extend the life of the structure considerably without incurring so much expenses.
The exact amount of cover is set by the application and the environment (e.g., is the RCC under water, etc.)
In India, following are considered as the standard size for the covers :
Slab : 20 mm
Beam : 25 mm
Column : 40 mm
Foundation : 50 mm

Concrete covers ensure the accurate position of steel, thus allowing in the practical application of the theoretical specifications of concrete construction. The cover of the steel concerning a specific construction component (for instance in a concrete slab or a beam) should be usually constant inside the element.

The application of covers can be beneficial to the areas where high earthquake activity along with corrosive environment (like proximity to salt water of sea) occurs.

Read more

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Step-by-step guidelines to develop a concrete block wall

A concrete block wall is formed with standard size concrete blocks. The standard size belongs to 8 inches. The sizes of the blocks may differentiate based on the design parameters and standards fixed by an engineer for the concrete structure.
A structure that is build up with concrete block is susceptible to concrete corrosion. Therefore, blocks are pre-coated to resist corrosion in the concrete block wall structure.
This construction video tutorial briefly shows how to construct a 20 feet long block wall from scratch with your own effort.
The block wall is built up on the basis of the following specification :-
Grade N units should be used for concrete blocks.
F’C (the specified compressive strength for concrete) should be 2500 psi for footing.
Reinforcing Steel should have been A615 Grade 40 or 60.
Fill all cells having steel with grout along with bond beam.
The wall should have been plumb and all block courses should be level.
Reinforcing steel splices should be at least 24”.

The first course should be arranged in fresh concrete for footing.
No of wall or fence should be permissible inside 36” of a fire hydrant and no wall, fence or foundation should be permissible inside 12” of a water meter.

Makin proper plan to adjust the height, location and design of the wall on the basis of the zone, location on the community design standards. Planning should be sanctioned before any permit is issued.

Read Continue

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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Monday, July 31, 2017

Some useful tips to develop and pour concrete stairs

The renowned concrete contractor, David Odell, has presented an exclusive construction video tutorial that provides some useful construction tips on how to develop and pour concrete stairs (10 steps of stairs).

These are the basic steps for developing concrete stairways. This video will guide you to build up your own concrete stairs. Steps shown in this video comprise of laying out the size, arranging the sub-base, developing the forms, pouring, finishing and curing the concrete from starting to completion.

A "riser" refers to the vertical surface of the step and a "tread" refers to the horizontal surface of the step. To define the whole size of the concrete stairs, initially, you should work out the total rise and run of the steps you are going to form.


To learn the complete process, watch the following video tutorial.


Read more

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co

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