Quantity Take Off or QTO is a well known project estimating company serving to the contractors, home builders, architects, design- build firms and sub contractor trade. We are providing estimating service since 2002 with a great chronicle of success.
Aggregate is a vital element in pavement construction. The load
transfer capacity of pavements is significantly impacted by the aggregated. So,
it is recommended to examine the aggregates comprehensively prior to utilize
them in the construction site.
The aggregates should contain the properties like durable and
long-lasting with perfect shape and size so that the pavement can function
monolithically. Aggregates are evaluated for strength, toughness, solidity,
shape, and water absorption.
In order to decide the suitability of the
aggregate for use in pavement construction, The following tests are conducted
to check whether the aggregates are suitable to be utilized in pavement
In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in pavement
construction, The following tests are conducted to check whether the aggregates
are suitable to be utilized in pavement construction:
TEST: Crushing under compressive stress is a model to check the eligibility of
pavement material for getting passed or failed. A test is organized with IS:
2386 part-IV and applied to find out the crushing strength of aggregates. The
aggregate crushing value offers a relevant measure of resistance to crushing
under increasingly employed crushing load.
2.ABRASION TEST: Abrasion test is accomplished to
examine the rigidity of aggregates as well as determine whether they can be
used for various pavement construction works. Los Angeles abrasion test is
mostly suitable for executing the hardness property and it is implemented in
India (IS: 2386 part-IV).
3.IMPACT TEST: The aggregate impact test is
accomplished to verify the resistance to impact of aggregates. Aggregates which
have passed 12.5 mm sieve and conserved on 10 mm sieve is filled with a
cylindrical steel cup having internal dia 10.2 mm and depth 5 cm that is
connected to a metal base of impact testing machine. The material is covered
with 3 layers where each layer is tamped for 25 numbers of blows. Metal hammer
having weight 13.5 to 14 Kg is set to drop with a free fall of 38.0 cm through
vertical guides and the test specimen is dependent on 15 numbers of blows.
4.SOUNDNESS TEST: Soundness test is conducted to
analyze the resistance of aggregates against weathering action, by carrying out
accelerated weathering test cycles. The Porous aggregates is dependent on
freezing and thawing is liable to decompose beforehand. To determine the
stability of such aggregates, they are dependent on a faster soundness test as
stated in IS: 2386 part-V.
5.SHAPE TESTS: The particle shape of the
aggregate mass is set with the proportion of rough and enlarged particles in
it. Large and enlarged aggregates may be damaged to higher workability and
stability of mixes.
6.SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION: The
design of concrete and bituminous mixes is mostly based on the properties like
specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates. The specific gravity of a
solid refers to the proportion of its mass to that of an equivalent volume of
distilled water at an indicated temperature. As the aggregates may include
water-permeable voids, so the following two measures of specific gravity of
aggregates are utilized:
1. Apparent specific gravity and 2. Bulk specific gravity.
7.BITUMEN ADHESION TEST: Bitumen is compatible
with all general types of road aggregates on condition that they are dry and do
not contain dust. Without water, no adhesion issue of bituminous construction
If the aggregate is wet and cold, the adhesion
issue may happen. This issue can be handled by eliminating moisture from the
aggregate by drying and raising the mixing temperature. Besides, the existence
of water leads to removal of binder from the coated aggregates. This problem
happens if bitumen mixture is absorbent to water.
objective of civil engineers is to plan, design, build, operate and maintain
roads, bridges, dams, water supply schemes, sewerage systems, transportation,
harbors, canals, dockyards, airports, railways, factories and large buildings.
generally render their jobs in the following sectors - structural, water
resources, soil and foundation, transport, airport, town planning or
Duties of an airport engineer:
a) Having expertize in producing designs for airports, hangars and
b) Administers the construction, maintenance and repair of runways, considering
the factors like weight, size and speed of aircraft
c. If any technical issue arises throughout construction, guides contractors to
solve the issue
Duties of a geotechnical/soil engineer:
a. Examines projected construction sites to determine the
conditions of soil and foundation with by initiating drilling and sampling
b. Monitors and takes part in job site and laboratory testing of soils, and
ensures that test equipment and machinery is arranged perfectly
c. Creates reports of test results and suggests proposals for providing the
solution to engineering issues given in test reports
d. Creates specifications of soil mixtures which can be utilized in roads,
embankments and other construction, and measures and provides suggestions on
the required slope at cuttings and the density of soil dams and retaining
Duties of a harbor engineer
a. designs and manages the construction of harbour facilities like
breakwaters, navigation aids, navigation channels, jetties, wharves, heavy-duty
pavement surfaces, cargo sheds and bulk handling plants for grain, ore and
b. Makes sure that the designs are created according to the needs of safety and
c. Optimize the use of funds and materials to fulfill the safety and
Duties of a harbor engineer:
a) Having expertize in evaluating population and growth statistics
and traffic patterns and volume to fulfill the needs of future project
b. Discusses with government officials and other specialists to make the design
perfect and secured traffic systems
c. Reviews roadway and embankment design, the geometry of highway interchanges
and the maintenance of facilities like culverts and overpasses.
Rebaring technique in reinforced concrete
construction stands for a process that is undertaken for fabricating and
arranging of reinforcement bars perfectly based on the design and drawings
intended for RCC works.
It is known fact that concrete is very durable in
compression and weak in tension. The reinforcement bars alias rebars are strong
in tension and these are combined with concrete to employ its tension property.
The responsible engineer produces the calculation
of reinforcement bar for a reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us
the particular details of the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape
and size of each bar for each work.
The responsible engineer produces the calculation of reinforcement bar for a
reinforced concrete work. The engineer supplies us the particular details of
the number of reinforcement bars as well as the shape and size of each bar for
types of loads like tension, compression, lateral, horizontal and torsion are
available which develop from pressure. To determine the strength of concrete,
you have to find out whether concrete can withstand these loads or not.
The strength obtained by the R.C.C structure is
based on the method and the techniques to be used for setting up the
reinforcement bar. The reinforcement bars are primarily patterned over its
surface to allow perfect bonding with the concrete.
Importance of Rebaring Technique in Reinforced
Concrete Construction: The steel reinforcement usually is segregated into two
• Primary Reinforcement or Main Steel
reinforcement • Secondary reinforcement or distribution reinforcement
The objective of applying main steel
reinforcement bars in R.C.C structures is to maintain resistance capacity for
withstanding the entire design loads delivered to it. The secondary
reinforcement bars are primarily used to maintain longevity and elegant look.
This reinforcement ensures to keep resistance for
localized areas like limited cracking. These can also combat the stresses
produced because of divergences in temperature.
The main bars which are used with indicated
diameter, are bent at the ends. The stirrups belong to reinforcements which are
arranged laterally, to place the main bars of the structural elements like
beams and columns, in exact location.
The stirrups may come in various shapes like
circular, square, rectangular, helical or diamond on the basis of the
cross-section of the structural element. The reinforcement bars in the corners
may appear as L – shaped.
The caging for the structural element to be
decided should be perfectly fastened so as to keep the position of each bar
unchanged throughout concreting. This is a check that should be always
maintained throughout concreting otherwise it can hamper the stability of the
The rebars are primarily arranged at the
junctions where the formwork of the structural element is closed and at the
point where a new structural element should be fastened with the former one.
To gather more
information, click on the following link theconstructor.org
Cap Designer is an intuitive software package for structural engineering works.
It can be used for the analysis, design, detailing and scheduling of commonly
shaped pile caps for 1 to 9 piles in quickest possible way.
The design and
detailing results can be shown on screen in the software and updated with each
key pressed for interactive structural design in perfect way.
With graphically defined output, it is possible to instantly
observe the detailing of pile cap. offers The quick assessment of the thorough
and perfect design can be achieved with the clear and exact calculation output.
MasterRC Pile Cap Designer reduces the strain for the time consuming task of
designing and detailing pile caps by providing innovative design options to keep
superior control over the design progression.
software offers the following functionalities :-
• Design pile caps on the basis of bending theory or a truss
• Abides by the conventions set by Whittle and Beattie (Concrete, 1972)
• Based on deep
Beam Theory, deep beams are designed perfectly • Any steel that exists outer the 3 diameter bands, is
overlooked in design • The truss analogy is done with concrete compression • Design is made adhering to BS 8110 & SABS 0100
• Scheduling to
BS 4466, BS 8666 or SABS 82 • Interchange among Design Codes to compare results • Improved shear stress capacity
considered as one of the most vital construction elements in modern
construction. If the strength of the cement is good, the structure will also be
stronger and long-lasting.
The cost of
cement is also higher as compared to other construction materials (Coarse
aggregates, fine aggregates etc.) and the cement plays an important role in
determining the overall project cost.
There are several manufacturers for cement. Be careful before
purchasing any cement bag as sometime it is found that the cement bags
delivered to jobsite are duplicates. So, it is necessary to verify some basic
standard specification prior to purchase cement bags. Given below, the detailed
information which are generally printed on a standard cement bag. While buying
or obtaining cement bags, these information should be tallied carefully:-
01. Check the
manufacturer’s name and his registered trade-mark 02. Black colored ISI mark should have been printed on the
cement bags. It complies with each requirement of the specifications. 03. The words ‘Ordinary Portland Cement, 53 Grade
’or‘Ordinary Portland Cement, 53-S Grade or Portland Pozzolana Cement whichever
is relevant should be mentioned in the bag. 04. Net quantity of cement in kg should vary from 25 Kg, 50
05. Brand of
cement 06. Verify the MRP (Maximum Retail Price) of bag 07. The words ‘Use no Hooks’ or symbol should be given in the
Batch/control unit number regarding week, month and year of packing should be
mentioned. 09. Address of the manufacturer should be provided. 10. Type and proportion of performance improver(s) should be
included, in a case of inclusion of performance improvers.
11. Specific IS
code number should have been printed on the cement bags. i.e. if your cement
bags belong to OPC 53 grade cement, “IS-12269-1987” should have been printed on
the cement bags and for Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) cement bags, “IS
1489-1991” should be printed on the cement bags.
construction video briefly explains the technical specification for bitumen
macadam and bitumen concrete essential for any road work.
alias Asphalt Concrete is formed by blending aggregate, filler and bitumen and
come in solid, medium or open graded on the basis of the end application.
Macadams are categorized into three primary layer categories like
Base, Binder and Surface Course. It is applied as a binder course for roads
where lots of heavy commercial vehicles pass through as well as a closed-graded
premix materials exist with voids content 5-10 per cent. It has strong and
concrete refers to a sort of construction material that is employed for paving
roads, driveways, and parking lots. It is formed by mixing stone and other
forms of aggregate materials combined jointly through a binding agent. This
binding agent is known as "bitumen" and is a by-product of petroleum
refining. It contains a dense, sticky texture like tar once heated, then develops
a thick solid surface as soon as it gets dried. Bituminous concrete is also
extensively recognized as asphalt in various parts of the globe.
material does not include cement. It has typical black appearance. It is
frequently placed right over a gravel base layer to build up new roads and
parking lots, but may also be poured over prevailing concrete to patch-up or
smooth out bumps and voids.
soon as the bituminous concrete are poured onto the roadway, the surface is
leveled and compacted through a large paving machines.
Bituminous Macadam :-
1) Grade of bitumen should be vary from 60 to 70
2) Temperature at different stages :-
a) At the time of blending materials maximum temperature should be 1650C
b) At the time of laying, the temperature should be 1250C
c) At the time of rolling, the temperature should be 900C
(tolerance) – At the time of rolling, the layers should be +6 M to -6 M.
4) Field Density Test – Here, compaction should be 98%; 1 test per 250 m2 of
get the complete details, watch the following video.
Read Continue ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co
Excavation support or earth retaining structures
are vital where deep excavation is created and arrangement of necessary slope
is not possible. Given below, the details of different types of excavation
What Are Excavation Supports? Usually, to develop a structure either over the ground or
underneath the ground, excavation of soil should be arranged in the ground.
The excavation may come in the form of shallow or deep on the
basis of our need. But when the soil is dug deeply, there is a chance for
collapsing of the soil from the sides of excavated area because of low
get rid of this issue and to create the cut vertically perfect, some temporary
earth retaining structures known as excavation supports are essential.
soil cut failure occurs if the limit of excavation surpasses its safe height
limit and it is subjected to unconfined compressive strength of soil and
the table, given below, the safe height limit for various soil types are given
on the basis of their unconfined compressive strength and cohesion limits.
Types of Excavation Supports: Usually, the following methods are
mostly used for providing excavation supports-
• Soldier pile and lagging
• Soil nailing
Soldier Pile and Lagging: Soldier piles refer to I-sections which
comprise of web among two flanges. These I-sections are drilled into the ground
encompassing the boundary of an excavation. The piles are delivered to the
point slightly under the necessary excavation depth.
concrete with poor strength is utilized for the purpose of grouting of piles.
The gap among each two nearby piles is restricted to 10 feet. Once that
exaction is completed, the flanges of piles provide good support to the
Wood lagging is applied among the piles. The lagging comprises of
long timber sheets or planks which are arranged behind the front flanges of
piles to provide well support to the soil among the piles.
timber contains 2 to 4 inches depth, there, some excavation should be arranged
by hand behind the front flange. To create stable bond among horizontal wood
sheets and front flange, welded studs, clips etc. are utilized.
While designing the slabs, which are built up on
ground, the crack control factors should be taken into account. Given below,
reinforcement details for slabs-on-ground.
The density and the design of the slabs-on-ground
are dependent on the cracks which are developed because of the external
loading. The calculation for slab thickness is made on the basis of the
suppositions of a slab being unreinforced and un-cracked.
For specific situations of slabs on ground, the steel
reinforcement can offer a great solution. The characteristics of this method
contains the following :-
1. The limiting of cracks occur because of shrinkage
2. Apply bigger joint spacing that is larger than the unreinforced slabs
3. The possibilities for cracks development may be avoided by provision for
moment capacity and constancy for those areas.
4. Cracking can’t be resisted with the integration of reinforcement. These
elements allow in minimizing or adjusting the produced crack width by genuinely
raising the frequency of cracks that is created.
a reinforcement design is proportioned and arranged perfectly, it can allow to
restrain the width of the crack significantly and therefore the serviceability
period of the slab is not impacted.
Thickness Design Methods for Slabs-on-Ground Construction
reinforcement in the slab design is applied increasingly, the un-cracked
strength of the slab is slightly affected. The various methods for thickness
design like Pickett’s Analysis Method (PCA), WRI (Wire Reinforcement Institute)
Design Method and COE methods can be employed for creating the design of slabs
on ground with reinforcement.
Reinforcement for Slabs-on ground for Crack Width Control Only
width of crack can be restrained by reinforcement on the basis of the two
factors like the joint spacing and the thickness of the slab. Otherwise we can
define the crack width control as a function of joint space and slab thickness.
There should be a minimum steel ratio of 0.5% of the slab cross
section to facilitate the saw cut of contraction joints to be removed.
the reinforcement is arranged, it is suggested to set the reinforcement bars
nearer to the surface of the slab top surface devoid of compromising the
minimum concrete coverage over the reinforcement.
This construction video tutorial briefly explains
what the most important brick test procedures are generally undertaken in the
The details of the tests are given below :-
Compressive Test – It is performed to verify the strength of a brick. Under
this test 5 samples of bricks are chosen randomly and sent them to laboratory
and apply pressure on various bricks through a crushing machine. Now, take the
average of all the results produced. If the averages is similar to 3.5 N/mm2,
the quality of the bricks are good.
absorption Test – Under this test the bricks are selected in completely dry
condition and taken their weight as W1. Then submerge them in water for 24
hours. Again, taken their (wet bricks) weight after 24 hours and named them as
W2. Now find out the average with the following formula :
Absorption % = W2 – W1/W1 x 100
recommended absorption rate should be between 15% – 20% for a good quality
Impact Test – This test ensures the proper bond in a brick so that
it can’t break easily. Under this test few bricks are selected and dropped them
from a height of 1 meter.
the bricks are broken, then impact test will come as failed. Contrarily, if
these bricks are not broken, the test result will be considered as passed and
the bricks are considered as good quality bricks.
Dimension Tolerance Test – In this test shape, size and colors of
the bricks are checked. Under this test, 20 bricks are selected and arranged in
a straight line. Then we take a sample of standard brick and tally it’s size,
shape and color with the bricks arranged in a straight line. If they match with
the sample bricks, the bricks should be treated as good quality bricks.
Test – In this test two are chosen randomly and hit with each other, if
metallic sound is produced and the bricks remain unbroken then these bricks are
considered as good quality bricks.
Hardness Test – In this test, a metal or other object is used to
put scratches on the bricks. If scratches are not produced, then these bricks
are hard and treated as good quality bricks.
Test – In this test, a brick is chosen and broken from the middle, if there are
no cracks, holes, impurities found inside the bricks, then the structures are
strong and these bricks are treated as good quality bricks.
watch online demonstration, go through the following video tutorial.
Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co
In this construction video tutorial, you will
gather knowledge on various types of pipe fittings which are generally utilized
in plumbing system. The video is very useful for the mechanical engineers and
other construction professionals.
The role of a fitting in pipe systems is to
attach straight pipe or tubing sections, adjust with various sizes or shapes
and for other purposes, like regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.
In a plumbing system, the following types of fittings are used :-
– An elbow is set up among two lengths of pipe (or tubing) to facilitate
changing the direction of flow. Normally, there are different types of elbows
like 90° or 45° or 22.5°angle. The ends are machined for butt welding, threaded
(generally female), or socketed. When the sizes for ends vary, it is called a
reducing (or reducer) elbow.
– A reducer is provided for accommodating a change in pipe size to match
hydraulic flow requirements of the system or adjust with current piping of a
diverse size. Generally reducers remain concentric, but eccentric reducers are
also utilized if required to sustain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level.
– A coupling attaches two pipes. If their sizes fluctuate, the fitting is
called as a reducing coupling, reducer, or an adapter. Two types of couplings
are available like “regular" and "slip".
A regular coupling contains a small ridge or stop inside, to avoid
over-insertion of a pipe, and consequently under-insertion of the other pipe
segment (which may occur in a defective connection). A slip coupling alias a
repair coupling is purposely developed devoid of this internal stop, to
facilitate it for being slipped into place in rigid locations.
- A union is required to disconnect the pipes securely for maintenance purpose
as well as for substituting the fixtures. With union, connection and
disconnection can be smoothly done several times as per requirement. It
comprises of three parts like a nut, a female end and a male end. If the female
and male ends are united, the joint is sealed with nuts by pressing the two
ends firmly together.
Tee - A tee is applied to unite (or separate) fluid flow. There
are female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets
and a female-threaded side outlet for it. It is possible to attach pipes having
various diameters or adjust the direction of a pipe run, or both.
– Crosses contain one inlet and three outlets (or contrary), and frequently
comprise of solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. Cross fittings may strain
pipes when temperature fluctuates as they are situated at the center of four
Plug - A plug sets within the pipe segment or fitting to which it
is associated. In a threaded plumbing system, plugs contain male threads.
Different plug types are available which range from mechanical, pneumatic-disk,
single-size pneumatic rubber, multi-size pneumatic and flow-through, and
- Caps, normally liquid- or gas-tight, provide a cover to the open end of a
pipe. A cap is connected with the outside of a pipe, and may contain a
solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. The outside of an
industrial cap may come in various shapes like round, square, rectangular, U-
or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip.
gather more information, watch the following exclusive video tutorial.
Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co
This construction video tutorial will guide you
to make concrete cover block or rebar spacer at a reasonable cost.
A rebar spacer belongs to a object that fastens
the reinforcing steel or "rebar" in reinforced concrete structures
since the rebar is amassed in place before the pouring of final concrete. The
spacers are remained in place for the pour to set the reinforcing in place, and
turn into a permanent part of the structure.
When RCC work is going on, implanting steel in concrete (called as cover) is a
vital process for resisting rebar from decaying as well as arranging fire
protection to the rebar. If the proposed cover is not arranged, the rebar will
start to decay in due course of time and will lead to collapsing of the
structure beforehand. So, cover blocks can extend the life of the structure
considerably without incurring so much expenses.
exact amount of cover is set by the application and the environment (e.g., is
the RCC under water, etc.)
India, following are considered as the standard size for the covers :
Slab : 20 mm
Beam : 25 mm
Column : 40 mm
Foundation : 50 mm
Concrete covers ensure the accurate position of
steel, thus allowing in the practical application of the theoretical
specifications of concrete construction. The cover of the steel concerning a
specific construction component (for instance in a concrete slab or a beam)
should be usually constant inside the element.
The application of covers can be beneficial to
the areas where high earthquake activity along with corrosive environment (like
proximity to salt water of sea) occurs.
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A concrete block
wall is formed with standard size concrete blocks. The standard size belongs to
8 inches. The sizes of the blocks may differentiate based on the design
parameters and standards fixed by an engineer for the concrete structure.
A structure that
is build up with concrete block is susceptible to concrete corrosion.
Therefore, blocks are pre-coated to resist corrosion in the concrete block wall
This construction video tutorial
briefly shows how to construct a 20 feet long block wall from scratch with your
block wall is built up on the basis of the following specification :-
N units should be used for concrete blocks.
(the specified compressive strength for concrete) should be 2500 psi for
Steel should have been A615 Grade 40 or 60.
all cells having steel with grout along with bond beam.
The wall should have been plumb
and all block courses should be level.
Reinforcing steel splices should be at least 24”.
The first course
should be arranged in fresh concrete for footing. No of wall or fence should be permissible inside 36” of a
fire hydrant and no wall, fence or foundation should be permissible inside 12”
of a water meter.
plan to adjust the height, location and design of the wall on the basis of the
zone, location on the community design standards. Planning should be sanctioned
before any permit is issued.
Read Continue ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
concrete contractor, David Odell, has presented an exclusive construction video
tutorial that provides some useful construction tips on how to develop and pour
concrete stairs (10 steps of stairs).
These are the
basic steps for developing concrete stairways. This video will guide you to
build up your own concrete stairs. Steps shown in this video comprise of laying
out the size, arranging the sub-base, developing the forms, pouring, finishing
and curing the concrete from starting to completion.
"riser" refers to the vertical surface of the step and a
"tread" refers to the horizontal surface of the step. To define the
whole size of the concrete stairs, initially, you should work out the total
rise and run of the steps you are going to form.
To learn the
complete process, watch the following video tutorial.
Read more ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Published By Rajib Dey www.constructioncost.co ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~