## Wednesday, August 31, 2016

### Mix Design On The Basis Of Dry Condition

Ascertain or Identify Slump Value
The initial step is to identify the lowest and highest limit for slump of concrete that has been utilized. Often the designer identify slump for concrete mix, this is correctly based on some conditions, otherwise if the value of slump is not indicated Table 1 is applied to find out the lowest and highest slump value on the basis of the type of structure.

Note: The value of (Table 1) is dependent on applying vibrator for compaction of concrete, if there is other method for compaction like a tamping by rods or other method add (2 cm) for every selected value from table 1.

Step 2: Ascertain or State Maximum Aggregate Size
Highest Aggregate Size is considered as the most vital data to be ascertained or identified for their mix design. This value is acquired from sieving analysis test result of coarse aggregate. Coarse aggregate must be examined prior to utilize in concrete mixture preparation. This value is accessible even for comprehensive mix design process.

Value of Maximum Aggregate Size must be examined with the following three equations:
(a): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 1/5 (lowest distance among form work side).
(b): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 1/3 (thickness of concrete member).
(c): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 3/4 (slightest distance among reinforcement).

Note: Point (c) is very vital in checking process as if the aggregate size exceeds the spacing of reinforcement while casting, concrete fails to pass the rebar cage. It signifies that passing ability of concrete is considerably reduced.

To read the complete article, visit ge4c.com

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Rajib Dey
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## Tuesday, August 30, 2016

### Different types of foundation and their usefulness

Maximum structures are built with two parts like super structure and sub-structure of the foundation. Super Structure is located over the ground and the other sub-structure of the foundation is located beneath the ground level. Foundation alias footing of a structure associates and transfers the load from the structure to the ground soil. The foundation is developed on the solid ground and it is called as the foundation bed. The foundation transfers the load of the structure and it’s self-weight to the soil with the purpose of keeping the final bearing capacity of the soil under control (the shear failure does not occur) as well as keeping acceptable settlement.

All the structures have foundation at the base that offers the following functionalities:
• To disperse the load of the structure across an extensive bearing area.
• To load the bearing surface equally to get rid of asymmetrical settlement.
• To resist the lateral movement of the supporting material.
• To enhance the strength of the structure all together.

Foundation is based on the following points :-
Foundation is categorized depending on the dispersion of load to the ground into two sub-categories like shallow foundation and deep foundation.

Shallow Foundation
Shallow foundation belongs to the foundations where depth of the foundation remains below the width of the foundation (D < B). Shallow foundations are usually known as spread footing because they transfer the load of the super structure laterally into the ground.

Categorizarion of Shallow Foundation:
Based on the design, the shallow foundation is classified as:
• Wall Footing
• Isolated column or Column Footing
• Combined Footing
• Cantilever (Strap) Footing
• Mat (Raft) Foundation
• Wall Footing

This type of foundation runs consistently along the direction of the wall and facilitates transferring load of the wall into the ground. Wall footing are mostly applicable where transferable loads are small and cost-effective in compact sands and gravels. For this type of foundation, the width remains 2-3 times the width of the wall at ground level. Wall footing is built up with stone, brick, plain or reinforced cement concrete.

Column Footing
Column footing are useful and inexpensive for the depth surpassing 1.5m. For this type of foundation, the base of the column is distended. Column footing comes in the shape of of flat slab and is developed with plain or reinforced concrete.

Combined Footing
Combined footings belong to the foundations which are built in common for two or more columns in a row. It is generally formed if the footing for a column is spreaded outside the property line. It is applicable if the two columns are placed narrowly and the soil on which the structure is developed contains low bearing capacity. The shape of the combined footing appears as rectangular or trapezoidal.

Strap Footing
If an edge footing fails to spread outside the property line, it is connected with the other interior footing through a strap beam. Such footings are defined as strap footing. or sometimes cantilever footing.

Mat Foundation
A mat foundation belongs to a combined footing that covers the whole area below a structure and supports all the walls and columns. It is also called as raft foundation. Mat foundation is mostly suitable for the following reasons:
Permissible bearing pressure is low.
The structure is weighty.
The site is located with highly compressible layer.

The mat foundation is categorized into following types:
Flat slab type.
Flat Slab thickened under column.
Two way beam and slab type.
Flat slab with pedestals.
Rigid frame mat.
Piled mat.

To read the complete article, visit civileblog.com

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Rajib Dey
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## Monday, August 29, 2016

### How to apply method of joints for truss analysis

This construction video shows how to examine a plain truss by applying method of joints. The tutorial is divided in two parts.

Method of Joints
The free-body diagram concerning any joint refers to a concurrent force system where the summary of moment is not fruitful. Recall that only two equilibrium equations should have been.

So, in order to entirely resolve for the forces functioning on a joint, a joint should be chosen with merely two unknown forces included. This is continued by choosing a joint that functions with only two members. Any unknown member is accepted as either tension or compression. If the force is opposite in action to that of the direction put on, the negative value is attained. As soon as the forces in one joint are set, their actions on nearby joints are identified. The process is sustained for resolving sequential joints until all members are organized.

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Rajib Dey
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## Friday, August 26, 2016

### Top 5 Android Apps In 2016 For Construction Professionals

Recently construction industry experience significant technological advancement. Several mobile based apps are emerged in the market. The civil engineering students as well as civil engineers always look for good android apps to save significant time, to improve accuracy level, precise calculation and complete work in scheduled time.

Given below, detailed information for top 5 android based apps for civil engineers :-

Autodesk® AutoCAD 360 previously known as AutoCAD WS, belongs to the authorized AutoCAD® mobile app. AutoCAD 360 is a user-friendly and free mobile app that can significantly improve the drafting process. It facilitates the users to view, edit, and distribute AutoCAD drawings at all times and elsewhere. There are robust design review and markup tools which can be accessed online and offline to streamline site visits and fieldwork. The app can distribute drawings with others over desktop, web, and mobile devices consistently. Apply the free companion AutoCAD 360 web app to smoothly avail drawings from web browsers. AutoCAD 360 Pro subscription plans will extend the functionality of the app with extra competencies to the jobsite.

2. Frame Design

This app contains some exciting features and specifically intended for civil engineers, mechanical engineers, architects and students who prefer to design 2D frames.

It is possible to input and edit hyper static structures, forces, supports etc through graphics and textures. All the calculations are made instantly.

The app offers the following exclusive features:
• F, T and q (rectangular and triangular) loads
• Fixed and hinge connections at beam ends
• Moment, Shear, Stress, Deflection, Reaction forces and Unity checks
• Imposed deflections
• M, N, V, ux, uz, utot, phi, sigma and unity checks output
• Fixed, hinge and roller supports in any direction
• Profile groups; every group contains its own color
• Import any steel profile or general section from our free Engineering Libraries (EU, UK, AU, US & CA profiles)
• Import dxf files
• Export to our Concrete Design and Steel Design apps
• Share picture

3. Beam Design

This finite element app is specially designed for for civil engineers, mechanical engineers, architects and students to create design for continuous beams.

The users can input and edit hyperstatic beams, forces, supports etc through graphics and textures. The calculations are made evidently in the background devoid of hampering your work and the result is given instantly.

The app offers the following exclusive features:
• F, T and q (rectangular and triangular) loads
• Fixed and hinge connections at beam ends
• Moment, Shear, Stress, Deflection, Reaction forces and Unity checks
• Imposed deflections
• M, N, V, ux, uz, utot, phi, sigma and unity checks output
• Fixed, hinge and roller supports in any direction
• Profile groups; every group contains its own color
• Import any steel profile or general section from our free Engineering Libraries (EU, UK, AU, US & CA profiles)
• Import dxf files
• Export to our Concrete Design and Steel Design apps
• Share picture

4. Floor Plan Creator

This android based is used to generate detailed and perfect floor plans. Any furniture can be included to make interior designing of your home beautiful. Get your floor plan with you to verify if there is sufficient room to accommodate a new furniture.

The app offers the following exclusive features :-
• Predefined room shapes together with free drawing of a room shape through S-Pen, mouse or touch.
• Extensive symbol library with doors, windows, furniture, electrical, fire survey.
• Cloud synchronization to backup automatically and distribute plans among devices (purchased, 3 days free trial)
• Export as image (free with watermark); DXF, SVG (purchased).
• Supports metric and imperial unit systems.

5. GPS Fields Area Measure

This android based construction app includes the following features :-
• Quick area/distance marking
• Smart Marker Mode for accurate pin placement !!!
• Measures saving and editing – Measures grouping and naming
• Undo for all measuring actions
• GPS tracking to walk/drive around boundary/directory to auto measure

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Rajib Dey
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## Thursday, August 25, 2016

### FreeCPM – A web based, easy to use online scheduling solution

FreeCPM is a web based, free, completely operative and strong CPM scheduling application toward the Construction Industry. This construction application can enhance construction schedule management process. FreeCPM facilitates several project members to access, interact, manage and create project schedules without any difficulty. The users can access FreeCPM through any device and transfer schedule information directly to the jobsite and at the same time transfer updated information directly from the jobsite, in real time.

FreeCPM can reduce project costs and enhance the ROI of any Construction Project

With FreeCPM, the construction team can remain on track by making updates automatically in real time.

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Rajib Dey
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## Wednesday, August 24, 2016

### A position is vacant for Assistant Staff Project Manager - Construction Materials Testing

An award-winning consulting firm that provides geotechnical engineering, construction materials testing and environmental and facilities consulting services and has been ranked as one of the top 100 engineering and environmental firms by ENR, is seeking an assistant staff project manager for construction materials testing.

Duties and Responsibilities:
Mainly perform with management of construction materials testing projects. The candidate has to take liabilities for testing of soils, foundations, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete, masonry, structural steel, fire proofing and asphalt pavement. Besides, there are other project management liabilities which range from application of technical support, day-to-day assessment of field reports, checking progression of project for performance and budgetary conditions, support with collection efforts, planning for proposals and invoicing, participating with project site meetings and providing support with the resolution to technical and administrative problems.

Functionalities:
• Analysis of soils, foundations, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete, masonry, structural steel, fireproofing and asphalt pavement.
• Laboratory tests.
• Day-to-day field reports.
• Project meeting and providing support in project resolutions.
• Scheduling, training and oversight of field technicians.
• Special inspections of structural components.
• Development of proposals.

Qualifications:
• BSCE from an ABET recommended college/university required; knowledge with MS Geotechnical Engineering will be an added advantage.
• 0-2 years working experience with associated field.
• EIT certification desired. Possibility for acquiring a PE license is essential for career development.
• Outstanding oral and written communication skills.
• Interest in project management and the ability to work effectively in teams, with clients, peers and subordinates, as required.

Notes: Please specify your compensation expectations [\$\$/hour] while sending application for this post otherwise your application will be disqualified. This position is non-exempt under FSLA. This position is not eligible for visa sponsorship.

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Rajib Dey
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## Tuesday, August 23, 2016

### Civil Engineering Notes is a useful construction app for Civil Engineers

Civil Engineering Notes is a useful construction app for Civil engineering communities. The app includes various topics related to civil engineering branch which are very useful for civil engineers to improve their knowledge.

The app provides good information for all types of competitive examinations. All the topics in this construction app are narrated in very simple terms. The app provides huge benefits to the newbie engineers as well as advanced civil engineers.

The app shed light on the following topics :-

Construction Technology; Engineering Materials; Construction Planning and Management; Surveying; Railway Engineering; Highway Engineering; Hydrology; Water Resources; Engineering Mechanics; Kinematics and Kinetics; Strength of Materials; Structural Analysis; Structural Steel Design; Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures; Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls; Fluid Mechanics; Dimensional Analysis and Similitude; Laminar Flow; Open channel flow; Boundary layer; Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower; Soil Type and structure; Compressibility and consolidation concept; Compaction of soil; Sewerage systems, etc.

There are various illustrations supported with diagrams so that the users can understand the app in a better manner. Besides, graphical demonstration, there are various mathematical formulas.

The app will facilitate the civil engineers to efficiently design, build and maintain the physical and naturally developed environment together with projects like bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.

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Rajib Dey
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## Monday, August 22, 2016

### Build a concrete slab footing of modern buildings

A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 100 and 500 millimeters thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving.

In many domestic and industrial buildings a thick concrete slab, supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the ground floor of a building. In high rise buildings and skyscrapers, thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level.

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Rajib Dey
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## Saturday, August 20, 2016

### Some useful construction tips for quality control of concrete throughout construction

This article is extracted from an exclusive construction article written by KAUSHAL KISHORE, well know consulting material engineer, and RAKESH SHARMA, Vice President Project of M/s Supertech Limited.

If the concrete is contacted with superplasticizer, it behaves the same way when the amount and type of sulfate included with the clinker. The rheological and setting Behavior are modified on the basis of whether the sulfate is included as anhydrite, hemihydrates, or gypsum. The variations are described by the various rates of dissolution of these sulfates.

It is crucial to keep in mind that all admixtures relevant to the similar generic type may not behave in the same way in concrete due to the differences in the molecular weight, cautions involved with them, chain length, etc. Correspondingly, the similar type of cement generically is dissimilar in mineral, alkali and sulfate contents, and fineness.

As per IS: 456-2000, admixture should not weaken strength of concrete neither mix with the component to develop injurious compounds as well as not enhance the chance for the growth of corrosion in reinforcement. The feasibility, compressive strength and the slump loss of concrete with or without the application of admixtures should be determined throughout the trial mixes prior to applying admixtures. If two or additional admixtures are applied all together in the similar concrete mix, data should be captured to evaluate their interaction as well as certify their compatibility.

The admixtures, the materials for forming concrete and their compatibility can influence the performance of concrete admixture along with superplasticizers. It is essential to analyze concrete admixtures so that it can be exactly used with the concrete to transform materials and mix proportions for being used on the work under proper field conditions.

There four primary components in Cement which range C3s, C2s, C3A and C4AF. Besides, there lots of negligible oxides like K2O and Na2O, MgO and SO3. These are supplied by gypsum and included in the final phases of cement manufacture as a set regulator. If there exist less C3A, superplasticizer would be get immersed in higher amount on C3S and C2S, causing a drop in the strength development.

To read the complete article, go through the following ink

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Rajib Dey
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## Friday, August 19, 2016

### Brief overview of Reinforced Concrete Materials

Concrete is a artificial product formed by solidifying the mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water in prearranged ratios. Once these compounds are blended, a plastic mass is developed that can be poured in appropriate moulds known as forms and placed standing into rigid solid mass. The chemical reaction of cement and water, in the alloy, is comparatively sluggish and needs sufficient time and perfect temperature for it completion. This time is also called ‘setting time’ and it is segregated into three separate stages. The first stage is labeled as time of initial set that tooks 30 to 60 minutes to be completed. Throughout this stage, the mixed concrete reduces its plasticity and forms apparent resistance to flow. The second stage is called final set and it takes 5 to 6 hours once the mixing process is completed. Throughout this stage, concrete becomes comparatively soft solid devoid of surface rigidity. The third stage contains progressive hardening and the strength is increased significantly. The method is very fast in the primary phase, till around one month once the mixing is completed. In this period, the concrete achieves the maximum capacity for hardness and strength.

Based on the quality and ratios of the compounds utilized in the mix, the properties of concrete differ. Concrete contains sufficient strength in compression but fewer strength in tension. Because of this, concrete becomes feeble in bending, shear and torsion. Therefore, application of plain concrete is restricted where strong compressive strength and weight are mostly required as well as tensile stresses are either completely missing or considerably low. So, in order to apply cement concrete for general structures like beams, slabs, retaining structures etc. steel bars are arranged at tensile zones of the structure which are concreted later on. The steel bars also called steel reinforcement, is implanted in the concrete and acquire the tensile stresses. The produced concrete is called as reinforced cement concrete generally shortened as RCC.

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Rajib Dey
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## Thursday, August 18, 2016

### What is Segregation of Concrete?

Segregation of concrete means parting of components of concrete from each other. A superior quality concrete contains various aggregates which are uniformly coated with sand and cement paste and develops a uniform mass. While dealing, transporting and arranging concrete, the cement and sands are parted from coarse aggregate because of jolts and vibrations. If concrete is separated throughout transportation, it must be remixed correctly prior to deposit. It is recommended not to use a concrete if initial setting time of it is ended.

Segregation of Concrete occurs due to following reasons:

1) Applying high water-cement ratio in concrete. This may occur if the concrete is blended at      jobsite by inexperienced workers.

2) Too much vibration of concrete with mechanical needle vibrators result in placing heavier      particles at bottom and lighter cement sand paste arrives on top.

3) If concreting is performed from height for underground foundations and rafts, it may              cause concrete to separate

How to get rid of Segregation of Concrete:

When depth of concreting is over 1.5 meters, it should be arranged through temporary inclined chutes. The angle of inclination should be maintained between 1:3 and 1:2 in oder that concrete from top of chutes moves easily to bottom. Applying small amount of free water from top at intermissions allows in lubricating the path of flow of concrete to bottom easily. The delivery end of chute must be closer to the point of deposit.

Segregation in deep foundations and rafts of thickness over 1 meter may cause segregation of concrete near bottom or in center. In this case, proper observation should be taken. To identify this type of segregation, ultrasonic testing process can be used. To clear any confusion, random ultrasonic testing method is applied. This type of segregation is corrected by pressure grouting with special chemical compounds. If any fault is corrected by pressure grouting, core test is done to make sure that the strength of concrete is achieved with optimal level.

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Rajib Dey
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## Wednesday, August 17, 2016

### Detailed processes for bond beam concrete block construction

A "bond beam" refers to a reinforced element that is placed horizontally in a masonry wall to withstand shear loads as well as disperse lateral loads all through the wall section. The bond beam transmits horizontal strength to a wall where it is not possible to be fortified with floor or roof structure. Bond beams enclose steel reinforcing in grout or concrete, ties the structure all together horizontally, and frequently interlock with supplementary vertical reinforcement. A bond beam is generally built adjacent to the top of a freestanding wall. A bond can also be applied to deliver a stable anchorage toward floor or roof structure. Bond beam assemblies are generally found in construction made with concrete masonry units, where special shapes allow the beam to be merged with the wall construction, but may also be constructed with brick or developed in concrete.

A single bond beam contains two courses of AB Fence Panel Block and their cores are filled through sand mix grout. Horizontal steel is arranged amid the two courses of block and reinforce the whole bond beam. To provide extra support, wire stirrups are arranged in each of the first two cores from each end and almost each other core with at least one stirrup per block, to make sure that the courses are not detached. This bond beam configuration develops a robust structural beam that can easily reinforce the fence panel structure. Bond beams are mostly applied at the top and bottom of the fence panel to produce a coordinated fence panel structure. Intermediate bond beams are necessary when the height of the AB Fence is raised.

Bond beams are occasionally haphazardly arranged in walls as a stiffening or tie element at tops of walls, floor connections, and top of foundation walls. Intermediate bond beams are generally not essential if not required to withstand shear stresses or to satisfy minimum seismic reinforcement requirements.

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Rajib Dey
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## Tuesday, August 16, 2016

### HVAC Estimating Software

HVAC estimating software provides great benefits to mechanical, piping, plumbing or sheet metal estimator to estimate the material and labor cost required to build a heating and cooling ventilating system. In order to find out the total cost estimate for the HVAC ventilating system all facets of material and labor cost are documented. A wide-ranging bill of materials supported with detailed design criteria and specifications for the HVAC system are generated alongwith related labor cost for manufacturing and installing a system in a building.

HVAC estimating softwares

• FastDuct
• FastPIPE
• FastWRAP
• Autobid Sheet Metal

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Rajib Dey
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## Friday, August 12, 2016

### How to determine zero force members in truss structures

This construction video provides useful information on how to make solution for zero force members in a truss. The video is very useful for the students who will appear in PE exam.

Occasionally in truss structure, under specific loading configuration, there exist some members that do not bear the load. These members are defined as zero-force members and generally utilized to enhance the strength of truss as well as deliver future supports when the implemented loading configuration is modified. The method of inspection is applied to define these zero-force members. Under this method, every joint in a truss structure is analyzed one by one.

Given below some useful tips to determine the zero-force members in truss structures:

• If a joint contains only two members without any external load or support, then those two members belong to zero-force members.
• If a joint contains only two members and is loaded, then when the line of action of consequential force from applied loads at the joint lies in the same straight line with one of the members then the other member belongs to a zero-force member. If the consequential force at the joint is not lying in the same straight line with either member, then both members do not belong to zero-force members.
• If a joint contains members without any external load and/or support, then when two of the members are lying in the same straight line then the non-collinear member belongs to a zero-force member.

In brief, zero-force members are detectable at a joint containing two members with or without applied load(s) and at a joint containing three members in which there does not exit any applied load. The objective is to focus on the specific joint being examined.

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Rajib Dey
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## Thursday, August 11, 2016

### How construction projects are completed successfully before schedule with Microsoft HoloLens Technology

Now-a-days builders are using digital technology like Microsoft HoloLens in their construction projects to visualize projects and detect any omission earlier and save huge savings in overall construction costs.

As for instance Gilbane, a leading commercial construction firm, used HoloLens to examine a mockup of a project. It was detected that steel frames the company intended to order to provide support to walls of the building were excessively long to match the design. Being able to detect the issue earlier, the company instructed the supplier to trim the frames shorter in the shop in spite of changing dozens of tracks that would retain the frames in place. Thus, Gilbane saved roughly \$5,000 in labor costs.

HoloLens can arrange holographic images in its user’s physical environment and improve the efficiency so that the project can’t run over budget and behind schedule.

This easy-to-use estimating sheet contains database sheet where all the records for material and labor names, rates, and lbr factors can be entered. To perform this, just choose the required material/labor and put the amount while making the estimation. One can create as many work stages as per choice and get complete view of all of the material/labor costs with individual stage and total cost.

HoloLens is applied prior to develop a building to identify mistakes in the way ducts and pipes are arranged in office ceilings. It is a complex system that frequently captures more room than projected.

HoloLens facilitates the builders to easily move any 3d image of the project, enlarge the size of the model significantly, walk through the details of the actual construction, toggle diverse views on and off to see the detailed architectural and structural images together with mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.

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Rajib Dey
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## Wednesday, August 10, 2016

### How MB Estimating Spreadsheet is useful for electrical, plumbing, construction, or other business

This construction video highlights the features of MB Estimating Spreadsheet. This construction estimating sheet is very useful to accelerate your estimating process with superior perfectness. This spreadsheet provides huge benefits for the professionals who associated with electrical, plumbing, construction, or other business.

This easy-to-use estimating sheet contains database sheet where all the records for material and labor names, rates, and lbr factors can be entered. To perform this, just choose the required material/labor and put the amount while making the estimation. One can create as many work stages as per choice and get complete view of all of the material/labor costs with individual stage and total cost.

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Rajib Dey
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## Friday, August 5, 2016

### How To Lay Brick and Mix Cement Efficiently to Develop A Brick Wall

Get some useful construction tips on how to lay bricks and mix cement for a brickwall. To start the construction work from scratch, you require some good construction tools. Given below the detailed lists of construction tools :
• A brick trowel
• A spirit level
• A jointing bar
• A tape measure
• Line and pins
• A soft brush

Next you should learn how to mix cement.
Mixing cement is the most vital part of the construction processes. Ensure that you don't keep it too wet or too dry for utilization. The work must be based on a ratio basis. You can mix in the ratio of 4:1 (4 part sand to 1 part water) or 3:1 (3 part sand to 1 part water). But remember, once you set the ratio, it should be maintained until the work is completed otherwise the mortar will be drying in various shades./p>
If you can arrange a cement mixer then the mixing can be done smoothly. To start the mixing process, you will require the following items:
• Building Sand
• Cement
• Water

Given below the stepwise processes for mixing mortar in a cement mixer:
• Load a bucket with water and include two sachets of feb. Use approximately a quarter of it into the mixer and turn it on.

• Keep the water and the feb to rotate for about 30 secs. Then include your first 3 shovels of sand (4 if the ratio is 4:1) Keep it to blend with the water and feb for some time.

• When the sand has developed a steady mixture (apply more water if it hasn't) and then include your shovel containing full of cement. Let it to be blended for some time and recur the step unless your mixer is packed. Include more water if required.‪

N.B.: Do not include water excessively. Initially, keep close eye on mixing process. It may appear too rigid but it frequently requires time to spin. If it still isn't appearing to be perfect then include little water at a time.
Mixing manually
• Ensure you contain an expansive wooden board for mixing. You should require it.
• Tip your 3 sand and 1 cement onto the board and blend simultaneously dry with the shovel.
• Make a hole in the middle of your sand so it appears to be a volcano.
• Add the water and feb from the bucket and blend it completely again.
• Recur these methods unless you obtain as much Mortar as per your requirement.

To go through the complete article, visit the following link dengarden.com

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Rajib Dey
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## Thursday, August 4, 2016

### Structural Analysis : How to check the stability of a structure

Proper investigation of structures stability is a vital aspect prior to start the analysis and design. Before starting the design of structures, it is important to verify whether the structure is stable or not.

In simple terms, stability signifies that structure doesn’t bear inflexible body motion and carries external forces and deforms.

To explain stability, two jargons are used - “Externally stable” and “Internally Stable” which are briefly explained in this video below. Structure becomes strong if and only it is stable from both externally and internally.

A skilled engineer can ensure the stability of structure through proper inspection as well as suggests necessary steps to transform an unstable structure to stable.

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Rajib Dey
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## Wednesday, August 3, 2016

### Types of Engineering Surveying

Surveying is primarily categorized as below :

1. Plane surveying
2. Geodetic Surveying

Plane surveying refers to the survey in which the earth surface is considered as plane and the curvature of the earth is not taken into consideration. The plane surveys encompass only over lesser areas and the lines linking any two points on the surface of the earth are defined as straight lines and the angles among such lines are assumed as plane angles. To start with plane surveys, understanding of plane geometry and trigonometry is essential. In plane surveys, the covered are must be up to 260 km. In this regard, please remember that the variance in length among the arc and the subtended chord on the earth surface toward a distance of 18.2 km is only 0.1 m.
Geodetic Surveying refers to the particular type of surveying in which the shape of the earth should be considered primarily. All lines assigned in the surface are arc or curved lines and the angles belong to spherical angles. So, it contains spherical trigonometry. These measurements are applied for modifying curvature on maps and plans. Geodetic surveys also offer a wide array of control points over the Earth's surface which produce perfect plane surveys. All Geodetic surveys comprise work of larger magnitude and superior degree of accuracy. The motive of geodetic survey is to obtain the exact position on the surface of the earth. Geodetic surveys are initiated with extreme degree of precision to arrange broadly spaced control points on the earth surface for successive plane surveys.
Categorization of surveying
Surveys are also secondarily categorized with no. of headings which describe the applications or objectiveÃ˜Ã‡ of resulting maps.
Categorization is done on the basis of type of field and there are three types of surveying :

1. Land Surveying: It is further divided as i) Topographical survey ii) Cadastrial Survey and iii) City Survey. It usually handles natural or artificial features on land like rivers, streams, lakes, wood, hills, roads, railways, canals, towns, water supply systems, buildings & properties etc.

2. Marine Surveying: Marine or hydrographic survey handles bodies of water for navigation, water supply, harbour works or for assessing mean sea level. The work comprises measurement of discharge of streams, arranging topographic survey of shores and banks, consiering and discovering soundings to ascertain the depth of water as well as observing the variations of the ocean tide.

3. Astronomical Surveying: The astronomical survey provides the surveyor means of ascertaining the absolute location of any point or the absolute location of and direction of any line on the surface of the earth. ‪

There are four types of surveying which are given below:

1. Geological Surveying
3. Archaeological surveying
4. Military surveying

Categorization on the basis of types of instruments applied:

1. Chain surveying
2. Compass surveying
3. Plane table surveying
4. Theodolite surveying
5. Tacheometric surveying
6. Photographic surveying

Categorization on the basis of techniques used:

1. Triangulation surveying
2. Traverse surveying

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