Saturday, January 30, 2016
Design of circular composite beams with a different concrete core considering the effect of concrete in tension
Presently, the bending resistance of composite steel and concrete circular beams and beam-columns is evaluated supposing the connection amid the steel shell and concrete core but overlooking the behavior of the part concerning the concrete core in tension.
Some natural and numerical researches reveal that an effect of this part of the concrete core on the total value of bending resistance of a composite member is supposed to be very crucial.
For that reason, this paper explains the process evolved for the design of hollow and solid concrete-filled steel tubular beams on the basis of the test data. It considers an effect of the part of the concrete core in tension and provides an improved agreement with test results than EC4 (EN 1994-1-1 2004).
Also, the paper provides the outcomes of executing analytical, experimental and numerical studies of the hollow centrifuged and solid concrete-filled steel tubular beams.
Link for download Design of Circular Composite Beams and Columns
Friday, January 29, 2016
This construction video highlights the effectiveness of StoneTree concrete fence walls. To develop the precast concrete fence the StoneTree® Precast Concrete Forming System is applied.
It is the most secured complete panel precast system in the present construction industry. This robust concrete fence wall performs like a hurricane resistance wall. StoneTree concrete fence wall is developed with combo-cast panel, column units together with rigid footing.
There is a texture design on both sides of the wall. StoneTree concrete fence wall systems reduce installation cost significantly and facilitate rapid installation.
Thursday, January 28, 2016
Go through the following construction video to get some useful construction tips for renovating a bathroom by installing new tile in the bathroom. Before doing that you have to learn how to take out old tile floor.
Here the most crucial part is to prep the subfloor. You will learn how to set up a waterproof tile membrane over the subfloor. While prepping the subfloor, the proper process should be undertaken.
To obtain complete information on the above, visit http://low.es/1icES2j
Wednesday, January 27, 2016
In order to settle a rate for a specific item, the factors liable for influencing the rate of that item, should be analyzed cautiously. So, the method of finding out the rates of an item is called as analysis of rates or rate analysis and it is dependent on the following elements :-
1.Specifications of works and material concerning their quality, proportion and constructional operation method.
2. Quantity of materials and their costs.
3. Cost of labours and their wages.
4. Location of site of work and the distances from source and conveyance charges.
5. Overhead and establishment charges
Cost of materials at source and at site of construction: The costs of materials are assumed as supplied at site all-encompassing the transport local taxes and other charges.
The objective of Analysis of rates:
1. To compute the per unit real cost of the items.
2. To calculate the reasonable exercise of materials and processes in accomplishing the specific items.
3. To calculate the cost of additional items which are not presented in the contract bond, but should be executed following the instructions of the department.
4. To modify the schedule of rates because of raising in the cost of material and labor or owing to alteration in technique.
standard schedule of rates: The labor charges is gathered from the standard schedule of rates 30% of the skilled labour submitted in the data may be considered as Ist class, left over 70% as II class. The rates of materials for Government works are predetermined by the superintendent Engineer for his circle annually and accepted by the Board of Chief Engineers. These rates are integrated in the standard schedule of rates.
Lead statement: The “Lead” is defined as the distance among the source of accessibility of material and construction site and it is presented in Km. The cost of conveyance of material relied on lead.
This statement will provide the total cost of materials per unit item. It consists of first cost, conveyance loading, unloading stacking, charges etc.
The rate demonstrated in the lead statement are intended for metalled road and contain loading and staking charges. The environment lead on the metalled roads are obtained by multiplying by a factor.
a) For metal tracks – Lead x 1.0
b) For cartze tracks – Lead x 1.1
c) For Sandy tracks – Lead x 1.4
Monday, January 25, 2016
LetsConstruct, the leading developer of various android based engineering apps, is the creator of Engineering Libraries.
It is a useful construction app for Civil & Structural Engineers to collect information for the construction industry. This construction app can be applied for the following :-
• General profiles (circular & rectangular)
• Includes EU, US, CA, RU, UK, AU steel profiles
• Metric & Imperial(see options)
The most updated version is Engineering Libraries v0.88 that contains updating to material design as well as concentrated on steel profile Parametric profiles and Freeform sections.
Download Civil / Structural engineering app
Friday, January 22, 2016
In a Masonry work, the cement and delicate aggregates devoid of any coarse aggregates are applied for constructing a structure. There exist various types of masonry work:
1. Brick Masonry
2. Concrete block / brick masonry
3. Stone / rubble masonry
4. Clay tiles, etc.
Masonry works like brick masonry, concrete block, stone or rubble masonry are usually estimated with volume, but in some cases these are computed with regard to area where the thickness of masonry is confined to single brick or single block. Tiling is estimated in area.
To estimate the quantities of masonry work, the wastage of materials like bricks, cement or sand as well as the types and classes of bricks, blocks or tiles are not considered. All types of masonry works are calculated individually into categories to estimate the perfect cost of construction on the basis of its price.
To estimate masonry works, the guidelines given below should be maintained:-
1. Masonry is computed as “net in place” containing deductions for openings like doors, windows, ventilation etc.
2. Various shapes of masonry units are individually estimated which range from rectangular, circular etc.
3. Masonry at various heights is estimated individually as masonry at greater elevation from ground may need scaffolding and hoisting.
4. Masonry work is estimated independently in the following diverse: a. Facings, b. Backing to facings, c. Walls and partitions, d. Furring to walls, e. Fire protection
Thursday, January 21, 2016
Ferrocement refers to a one type of thin wall reinforced concrete generally formed with hydraulic cement mortar reinforced together with tightly placed layers having continuous and comparatively small size wire mesh. Metallic or other suitable materials are used to develop the mesh.
Ferrocement contains a very high tensile strength-to- weight ratio and greater cracking behavior as compared to traditional reinforced concrete. Therefore, the thin ferrocement structures seem to be comparatively light and watertight. Extensive use of the ferrocement materials are found in developing prefabricated housing units, boats, barges as well as hulls for boats, shell roofs, and water tanks and other portable structures. Ferrocement is approved by ACI 549R-97 for the above mentioned structures. Ferrocement is considered as a superior material because of its tightly apportioned reinforcement.
Ferrocement provides great advantages to the construction professionals due to cost efficiency, accessibility of materials, quick time of fabrication and flexibility of extension and portability.
Tuesday, January 19, 2016
The site managers and construction planners should have clear ideas on the features of the leading construction equipments which are extensively utilized in various construction projects. The on-site productivity mainly depends on the amount of time needed and effort which can be significantly affected by the improper selection of type and size of construction equipments.
Excavation and Loading: One family of construction machines intended for excavation is generally categorized as a crane-shovel.
The crane-shovel consists of three most important components:
• A carrier or mounting which offers mobility and stability for the machine.
• A revolving deck or turntable which includes the power and control units.
• An attachment located forepart that provides the special functions in an operation.
The crawler mounting is specifically useful for crawling over comparatively rugged surfaces at a construction site. Other types of mounting range from truck mounting and wheel mounting offering superior mobility amid job sites, but superior surfaces are needed for functioning efficiently. The revolving deck contains a cab to accommodate the person responsible for operating the mounting and/or the revolving deck. Here in figure 2, the types of front end attachments might contain a crane with hook, claim shell, dragline, backhoe, shovel and piledriver.
Typical Machines in the Crane-Shovel Family: Here a tractor contains a crawler mounting and a non-revolving cab. If an earth moving blade is connected to the forepart of a tractor, the assembly is termed as a bulldozer. If a bucket is connected to its forepart, the assembly is called as a loader or bucket loader. There exist various types of loaders which caterer to most competently deal with materials containing diverse weights and moisture contents.
Scrapers refer to multiple-units of tractor-truck and blade-bucket groups with different combinations to allow the loading and hauling of earthwork. Most important types of scrapers consist of single engine two-axle or three axle scrapers, twin-engine all-wheel-drive scrapers, elevating scrapers, and push-pull scrapers. Every type contains dissimilar characteristics of rolling resistance, maneuverability stability, and speed in operation.
For more information visit, theconstructor.org
Monday, January 18, 2016
In this construction video, one can learn how to use Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional, Advanced structural analysis software, for slab, beam, column design of any structure.
This software contains advanced BIM-integrated analysis and design tools to comprehend the performance of any structure type and examine code compliance. Use the software for superior building simulation for complicated structures as well as instantly make analysis of various structures for easy workflow.
The most updated version is Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016. Go through the following link to download a free trial version.
Friday, January 15, 2016
Introduction to Infrastructure: An Introduction to Civil and Environmental Engineering – A useful construction book
Introduction to Infrastructure: An Introduction to Civil and Environmental Engineering is an useful construction book written by both Michael R. Penn and Phillip J. Parker. This construction book will provide assistance to civil and environmental engineers to undertake and fulfill the challenges of the 21st century.
The authors utilize the infrastructures surrounded us to make them familiar with students belong to civil and environmental engineering and at the same time expose how all the parts of civil and environmental engineering are co-related to facilitate the students to have clear ideas in the first or second year of the curriculum.
Students will gather knowledge on the what of the infrastructure, as well as the how and the why of the infrastructure. Readers will come to know the infrastructure as a system of interconnected physical components, and how those components provide impact, and are affected by, society, politics, economics, and the environment.
By acquiring knowledge on infrastructure, the educators and students will get the ability to build up a vital connection amid fundamental knowledge and use that knowledge, so that the students can translate their knowledge to new contexts.
The authors try to employ the advanced learning instructions which involve learning objectives, concrete examples and cases, and numerous photos and illustrations as well as chapters organized well to the ABET accreditation requirements AND the ASCE Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge 2nd edition (with recommendations for using this text in a 1, 2, or 3 hour course) and make this text a principal factor concerning any civil and/or environmental engineering curriculum.
Thursday, January 14, 2016
This an exclusive construction video by R.S. Walls (Pr. Eng) who associated with Stellenbosch University. In this video, Mr. Walls explicitly narrates detailing Steel Reinforcing (Rebar) Bending Schedules for Concrete with the use of AutoCAD and Excel.
The following topics are discussed in this video :-
- Definition of rebar?
- Definition of a bending schedule?
- Process for drawing a schedule in AutoCAD?
- Process for generating the schedule in Excel and send it into AutoCAD.
- General guidance
One can download the spreadsheet from Steel reinforcing (rebar) spreadsheet for detailing reinforced concrete in Excel
Formation of highly detailed reinforcement drawing and bar bending schedule is a vital part in the construction jobsite as it helps construction professionals to obtain a superior level of quality control in jobsite and get benefits in several aspects of construction.
Wednesday, January 13, 2016
Moment Distribution Calculator is useful for Indeterminate beam having two spans. Left span contains a point load and right span contains fractional UDL commencing from intermediate support.
Note : Put the value of moments of inertia of both the spans in the similar units. If I1 is identical to twice of I2, just put I1=2 and I2=1. Likewise the Modulus of Elaticity for both the spans belong in the identical units. If E1 is corresponding with twice of E2, just put E1=2 and E2=1.
Go through the following link to use the calculator Moment Distribution Calculator for Indeterminate beam of two spans
Thursday, January 7, 2016
Jamoke Innovations LLC develops Civil Calcs. It is an exclusive construction program compatible with iOS device.
This construction program is ideal for Civil Engineers and Land Surveyors to rapidly estimate as well as verify points on portions of a roadway profile. Besides, it can also be used for area calculations, drainage/flow calculations, traffic counts, etc. It is best suited in the office, when verifying any plans, or in the jobsite if you require some instant effective estimations.
This app complies with Apples advocacy of a universal binary; meaning the purchase consists of both the iPad and iPhone versions for the identical price. So if the users contain an iPod/iPhone they can obtain that version, but if they contain the iPad they will have that version too. The Lite version of this app is not compatible with the iPad.
Link for download Civil Calcs for Civil Engineers
Tuesday, January 5, 2016
With some powerful features like variability, flexibility and fire & corrosion proof strength, reinforcement is considered as the most crucial construction element for steel construction that an reduce the maintenance cost of any structure significantly. Superior quality cements are used in reinforcement concrete that produce more stronger and long-lasting concrete to be applied in various types of structures.
The usage of Reinforced concrete can be found in building the floor and roof slabs, columns and beams in residential and commercial structures.
Currently, the reinforced concrete is extensively used for bridges having small, medium and long spans which produce aesthetically superior and cost-effective structures with regard to steel bridges.
The application of reinforced concrete is also found in various earth retaining structures ranging from abutments for bridges and retaining walls for earthen embankments.
Reinforced concrete is perfectly applicable for water retaining structures similar to ground and overhead tanks and hydraulic structures similar to gravity and arch dams. The material is very much acceptable for building up the big domes for water tanks and sports stadiums and conference halls.
Reinforced concrete grid floors formed with beams and slabs are broadly utilized for wrapping large areas like conference halls where it is necessary to arrange free space for column.
For aircraft hangers, reinforced concrete shells containing lean circular slabs and deep edge beams can reduce the cost significantly.
Reinforced concrete folded plate construction is utilized for industrial structures where it is essential to arrange large column free space under the roof.
In coastal areas where corrosion is inevitable for developing the marine structures like wharfs, quay walls, watchtowers and lighthouses. For warehouses in coastal areas, reinforced concrete trusses are useful to support steel trusses.
Now-a-day Reinforced concrete poles substitute steel poles for transmitting power. Tall towers for TV transmission are consistently erected with reinforced concrete.
Various Multistorey buildings for both residential and office complexes are constructed indiscriminately with reinforced concrete. For heavy duty floors in factories, reinforced concrete is very much suitable because of its resistance to corrosion and longevity.
In atomic structures, reinforced concrete is ideal to steel for pressure vessel construction caused by the greater radiation absorption characteristics of high strength and high-density concrete.
In Reinforced concrete piles, both precast and cast-in-situ are some of the vital elements for groundwork of various types of structures like bridges and buildings. The pavements for highways and airport runways are also constructed with reinforcement concrete.
So, we can say reinforced concrete is the most crucial material for developing the most simple to composite structures. With the inclusion of superior quality in cement and steel, the use of reinforced concrete will be significantly increased in 21st century.