Friday, December 30, 2016
Bar bending schedule offers the reinforcement calculation for reinforced concrete beam. It supplies details of reinforcement cutting length, type of bends and bend length.
Here we will take one example for reinforcement quantity calculations for a concrete beam.
Example of RCC Beam Reinforcement Calculation:
Assume a beam of clear length of 4m, 300mm wide by 450mm depth. It consists of 2-12 diameter bars at top, and 2-16 diameter and 1 – 12 diameter bars at the bottom. Diameter of stirrup is 8mm spaced at 180mm center to center. Clear cover to reinforcement provided is 40mm.
Now we will calculate the length of reinforcement on the basis of shapes of reinforcement mandatory for reinforced concrete beam in above example.
We will start with bottom reinforcement, B1.
Bar shape of B1 is as shown below:
RCC Beam Bar Bending Shape
Length of B1 = clear distance between walls + 2 x width of walls – 2 x bar cover + 2 x bend length
Bend length = 6 x 16 = 96 consider as 100mm
Bend length is calculated as 6 x diameter of bar for reinforcement conforming to IS: 1786-1961
Length of B1 = 4000 + 2 x 230 – 2 x 40 + 2 x100 = 4580mm
Length of bar B2 is calculated on the basis of the shape of this bar. This bar bends up closer to the support as shown below:
RCC Beam Bar Bending Shape
Length of bar B2: A + B + C = 4000 + 2 x 230 – 2 x 40 + (1.414xH – H)
H = 450 – 2 x 40 – 2 x 12 – 2 x 12/2 = 334mm
B2 = 4000 + 2 x 230 – 2 x 40 + (1.414×334 – 334) = 4518.3 = 4520mm
Length of Bar T1 = 4000 + 2 x 230 -2 x 40 = 4380mm
Length of Stirrups S1:
RCC Beam Stirrups Length Calculation
Stirrups are spaced at 180mm center to center. Stirrups are provided between walls or support for a beam.
No. of stirrups required for given beam = No. of Stirrups
Length a = 450 – 2 x40 – 8 = 362mm
Length b = 300 – 2 x 40 – 8 = 212mm
Therefore length of 1 stirrup S1 = 2 x (212 + 362 + 90) = 1328 mm
Where 90mm is the minimum hook length as per IS 2502 – Table – II.
Wednesday, December 28, 2016
This example problem of a Concrete Slab Formwork design using an excel spreadsheet is very handy for all construction professionals out there.
This tutorial shows how to configure a spreadsheet with the purpose of design the spacing of joists, stringers and shores for a concrete slab form.
In this tutorial you will learn a step by step guidance delivered by matt hallowell. Enjoy the tutorial below:
Tuesday, December 27, 2016
In the sector of civil engineering, quantity surveying plays an important role. The professional person who is involved with construction cost and contracts of construction industry is called quantity surveyor.
Services offered by a quantity surveyor may consist of:
- Value engineering
- Risk management and calculation
- Tender analysis and agreement of the contract sum
- Commercial management and contract administration
- Assistance in dispute resolution
- Asset capitalization
- Cost management process
In this tutorial you will learn a step by step guidance on quantity surveying delivered by Xpacademy.com. Enjoy the tutorial below:
Monday, December 26, 2016
The slope deflection method is a structural analysis method for beams and frames . Before the development of the moment distribution method, the slope deflection procedure was widely used more than a decade.
In this lecture you will learn the analysis of indeterminate frames step by step (with proper equations and diagrams) by the help of the use of the slope-deflection method.
Enjoy the tutorial below:
Thursday, December 22, 2016
This construction video provides brief demonstration on cost estimator, an exclusive tool for precise construction cost estimation. This construction tool can work out the costs perfectly for any home building project. This tool will provide spreadsheet based three diverse estimates concurrently. So, it is not possible for you to view the discrepancies while obtaining each new estimate.
This estimating tool creates estimate on different phases which range from Preconstruction, site work, concrete stone brickwork, footing and foundation, subcontractors (wide list of probable subcontractors drywallers, painting, roofing and framing), miscellaneous like decks & outbuilding, custom built-ins, appliances, and contingency amount.
Wednesday, December 21, 2016
On the basis of the capability of the cement to be set in the existence of water, cements used in construction are classified as either hydraulic or non-hydraulic (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster).
It will be difficult for non-hydraulic cement, to be set in wet conditions or underwater; instead, it sets once it dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It is defiant to any chemical attack as soon as it is set.
Density of Cement = 1440kg/m3
For 1 m3 Cement needed is 1440 kg
1 Bag of Cement = 50 kg
For 1 m3 Cement needed = 1440/50 = 28.8 bags
We know, 1 m3 = 35.3147 CFT
Or, 28.8 bags = 35.3147 CFT
Or, 1 Bag = 35.3147/28.8 = 1.226 CFT
Wednesday, December 7, 2016
Formwork alias bekesting / mal / molds that is formed with wood, plywood, steel to develop the fresh concrete.
TRIO stands for the globally recognized formwork system for all applications where the primary objective is to minimize the times for shuttering by applying traditional DW tie technology. With the BFD coupler for virtually all connections and many other practical system solutions, TRIO has proved it’s worth in numerous projects all through the globe. TRIO is utilized simultaneously with the more innovative MAXIMO panel formwork. A wide array of accessories, like the BFD Coupler or MXK Bracket System, is applied in both systems.
Given below, some exclusive features of Trio
- Panel formwork is very flexible for faster performance. Panel formwork supports MAXIMO panel formwork
- Panel heights up to 3.30 m, panel widths up to 2.40 m (standard system)
- Highest allowable fresh concrete pressure: 80 kN/m²
- Compatible with DW 15 and DW 20 tie systems
- Flush, aligned and firm connections with the BFD Alignment Coupler – along with filler timber compensations up to 10 cm
- Easy cleaning operations because of the powder-coated frame
Monday, December 5, 2016
Footings are crucial part of foundation development. Footings are generally formed with concrete through rebar reinforcement that is poured into an excavated trench. The footings are developed to provide support to the foundation and avoid settling.
A footing is a foundation unit that is built in brick work, masonry or concrete supported with the base of a wall or a column with the aim of dispersing the load over a huge area. A footing or a shallow foundation is arranged immediately underneath the bottom most part of the Superstructure supported by it.
A combined footing stands for a long footing that supports two or more columns in (generally two) one row. A combined footing belongs to a rectangular or trapezoidal shaped footing.
Download the sample drawing of combined footing design.
Saturday, December 3, 2016
By watching this construction video tutorial, one can sharpen his/her knowledge for developing stairs. The video also provides detailed information on how to measure the individual riser height by separating it into the total height among the lower and upper floors as well as estimate individual part perfectly.
While developing stairs, focus should be given on proper layout and some theoretically delicate calculations. Stairs must adhere to stringent building codes to maintain proper safety and climbing comfort.
There are three prime components in a standard staircase like stringers, treads and risers. Stringers, generally cut from 2 x 12s, which belong to the sloped boards for providing support to the other components and bearing the weight of people walking on the stairs. They're usually arranged 16 in. on center. While defining the width of the staircase, wider width is preferred as people can wal on wide staircases securely and comfortably.
Treads build the top surface of every step, and risers are set up directly below the front lip of each tread. Some stairs don't contain risers but it should be avoided as risers safeguard the uncovered endgrain of the notched stringers from the weather.
Friday, December 2, 2016
Concrete – cement : sand : gravel is a proportions calculator that measures perfect ratios and volumes of cement, water, sand and gravel in litres for producing concrete mix of the needed strength (mark).
The users will be able to indicate the density of the concrete mix, components humidity, porosity of sand & gravel and the requirement for smoothing down the completed structure as well as maintaining the correctness of calculation.
In case you are unaware about them, just keep the default values. Alternatively, you can choose the question symbol to work out, how the measurements will be completed.
The application is specifically developed for the builders who prepare concrete in a mixer independently.
Touch the question symbol if something is uncertain.
Go through the following link to download this useful construction app
Thursday, December 1, 2016
This construction video provides step-by-step instructions on how to measure excavation and backfill concerning trenches.
Trench stands for an extended excavation that is separated from pits or basements. A footing is a good instance of the trench.
In order to find out the volume of excavation for a simple footing, the following formula is used :-
CL x W x D = Cu.Ft. of Excavation
If you want to change to cubic yards, divide the results by 27
It becomes very difficult while going to make calculation for a trench that includes working spaces and sloped sides. The following formula is used for this purpose.
CL x AD x AW = Cu.Ft. of Excavation
Monday, November 28, 2016
This construction tutorial will teach you the detailed method for computing quantity of Cement, Sand & Aggregate in concrete as well as cost of materials with Microsoft Excel.
The volume of executable PCC is taken as 6 cubic meter that should be performed with M15 grade of concrete whose ratio is 1:2:4. MS Excel program is very useful to instantly produce and manage your concrete cost estimates accurately. Get detailed takeoff and summarize the quantities automatically based on the scope or assembly item.
Benefits of excel based estimating:
• Most of the calculations are automated
• User-friendly to use
• Save huge time in calculation
• Easily customizable according to your requirements
Friday, November 25, 2016
This construction video provides detailed methods for estimating the quantity of cement, sand and aggregate in cement concrete to figure out the cost of all the materials. In this video, the volume of PCC to be prepared is taken as 10 cubic meter that is to be completed with M15 grade of concrete in the ratio of 1:2:4.
In a simple term, concrete is defined as a blend of paste and aggregates. The paste is formed with portland cement and water and covers the surface of the fine and coarse aggregates. With a chemical reaction known as hydration, the paste is solidified and becomes stronger to develop the rock-like mass called concrete.
Due to its longevity, firmness and comparatively marginal cost, concrete is mostly recognized for the buildings & infrastructures like houses, schools and hospitals as well as airports, bridges, highways and rail systems all through the globe.
Cement is actually a vital component of concrete. This fine powder is amalgamated with water, sand, and gravel or crushed stone (fine and coarse aggregate) and develops the rock-like mass known as concrete.
Thursday, November 24, 2016
While developing a big project, there should be a perfect technical engineering perception and cautious observation. Besides, other crucial examinations, Reinforced Cement Concrete should be verified for rebar toward the supplied construction drawings / shop drawings or technical specifications.
It should be remembered that the obstacle and cost associated with this activity may cause imperfection from the contractors end and it should be resolved / settled by a well-known consulting firm assigning on the inspection of execution.
One should have sound knowledge and well versed with the binding method of the steel rebar. Given below, some useful construction tips suggested by the top peers:-
a. Initially, one should have good knowledge on how to study a rebar drawing as well as communicate with it in the jobsite. In order to become a proficient rebar checker, you should have the capability to read drawing.
b. Carry a measuring tape with yourself so that you can verify the spacing and the splice length or development length.
c. Use a plastic glove, when checking the rebars as holding steel with bare hands may cause harm to the skin of of your body.
d. Should be familiar with the physical features of the construction component i.e. installing the drainage pipe or electrical conduit or replacing water stopper and any other pipes / embedded item.
e. Use vernier caliper to verify rebar diameter, rebar spacing, rebar development length, lap / splice length, alignment. Other important things range from no sag or buckling in the bars, perfectly fixed & tightened couplers, rust free bars, verifying clear cover, counting no of bars as per drawing specifications and must not be below or over 2 bars.
f. As a newbie in this field, try to keep in touch with contractor’s foreman or site engineer as they know well how to arrange these bars.
g. You should have good knowledge concerning the steel quality tests like tensile strength check or torsion failure strength or coupler tension strength check etc. Make sure that the steel are used after proper verification and poor quality steels are used.
h. Because of rough field conditions and difficultly in setting up / fixing of rebars, the proper design can’t be created. But you must be very careful about it as improper design may lead to collapse of a building.
i. One of the very crucial factors is to retain the exact orientation of bars like main rebars should be always arranged under the distribution or temperature rebars. It can be verified from the drawings submitted to you.
Wednesday, November 23, 2016
Truss mesh reinforcement is essential for developing masonry wall. Truss mesh reinforcements are implanted into the horizontal mortar joints of masonry walls and constant with the wall length.
Reinforces various types of masonry walls
Considerably lowers the cracking that may happen due to thermal stresses
Improves resistance capacity against penetration of water, because cracks are well organized
Improves lateral flexural strength
Enhances performance of masonry walls under different stresses
Existing Materials: hot dipped galvanized, electro galvanized or stainless steel.
Wire diameter:1.8mm - 2.0mm.
Weight: 2kg - 10kg.
Length: 3 meters long, the space distance is 40cm
Width 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm ,25cm, 30cm.
Saturday, November 19, 2016
A gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box full with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, and military applications and landscaping.
Here are some different designs based on different heights:
1m high wall
A 1m high wall is very easy to build and it requires 1m x 1m x 1m or 2m x 1m x1m baskets. The smaller size is recommended if the length user have to cover is small as it will lessen transport costs. User can also use 1/2m deep baskets this will save on the cost of fill but will decrease the strength of the wall and is recommended only in situations where the bank is fairly secure.
2m high wall
Gabion baskets are a mass retaining system accordingly, to construct a wall for the higher area which requires retaining; for that reason the wall must be heavier enough. For a gabion wall’s standard design the structure is like a pyramid. As a matter of fact, for every 1m expansion in wall height, the bottom row basket depth should be expanded by half a meter.
3m high wall
In this example the top 2 rows are the same as a 2m wall but with a .5m increase in the depth of the bottom row.
The bottom row is 2 meters deep middle row 1.5m deep and top row 1m deep. In general usage of 2m x 1m x 1m baskets bottom row 1.5m x 1m x 1m baskets in the middle row and 1m x 1m x 1m or if possible 2m x 1m x 1m baskets going sideways on the top row.
The image below is the example of gabion retaining wall design of different heights.
Thursday, November 17, 2016
This construction video provides useful information on how to use Etabs 2016 for creating effective slab design.
This newest software can be used to make integrated structural analysis, design and drafting of building systems. ETABS 2016 contains supreme 3D object based modeling and visualization tools as well as rapid linear and nonlinear analytical capacity, superior and wide-ranging design capacities for a wide array of materials, and intuitive graphic displays, reports, and schematic drawings which facilitate the users to smoothly & instantly read and understand analysis and design results.
ETABS combines each phase of the engineering design process from initial design perception to the formation of schematic drawings. Formation of models becomes so simple. With superior drawing commands, one can instantly generate floor and elevation framing. CAD drawings are directly transformed into ETABS models or applied as templates onto which ETABS objects are overlaid. The advanced SAPFire 64-bit solver facilitates the users to instantly evaluate exceptionally big and complicated models. It also supports nonlinear modeling methods like construction sequencing and time effects (e.g., creep and shrinkage).
Monday, November 14, 2016
This construction video briefly shows how to use Tekla Structure 2016 to perform bridge pier reinforcement.
Concrete piers stand for vertical structural elements that support the weight of a building or structure. The role of the concrete piers is similar to the table legs. If they are designed properly, and arranged on solid ground or to a depth that the friction on the sides of the pier is exceeding the load placed on the pier, the piers and the structure will be immovable.
Most concrete piers applied over the average home for a deck or other structures are generally lower than 24 or so inches in diameter at the base of the pier. As the pier increases and out of the ground, it can be minimized in size to as small as 10 inches in diameter. The bottom of the pier should always remain under the frost line in the area.
The bottom of the pier should be broader as compared to the top. The wider base facilitates allocating the weight of the structure over more soil. Thus the design becomes stable enough.
Thursday, November 10, 2016
Progress Builders, a full-service, Design-build company, working on residential construction market, just introduced Concrete Foundation Estimator 1.1.1 compatible with iPhone, iPad and iPod touch devices.
This newest construction app will be a very resourceful and exceptionally influential productivity tool for all contractors and owner-builders.
Concrete Foundation Estimator 1.1.1 was purposely intended to enhance and make the process simpler for estimating and bidding on concrete jobs. This construction software facilitates the Concrete Foundation Estimator to produce professional, editable, easy-to-follow construction bids, estimates, and quotes, together with the all or any part of the following:
- Concrete demolition of existing slabs and footings
- Excavation volume and cost using manual labor or machinery
- Extracted soil hauling and dumping fees
- Crushed concrete hauling and dumping fees
- Materials cost and volume for
- Stem walls
- Shear walls
- Anchor bolts
- All thread retrofits
- Concrete ready-mix or in bags
- Volume, cost and waste %
- Labor for piers, reinforcement assembly and concrete pouring
- Cost of concrete pumping
- Adjustable Workman's compensation rate
- Sales tax in your area for all materials
- Job overhead
- Custom fields to add to estimate
The Concrete Foundation Estimator contains an in-built portfolio page that saves all projects. One will be able to recover and revise estimates instantly, create revisions, make PDF quotes as well as spreadsheets editable in excel. There also exist some in-built Tutorials containing tricks for how to accumulate values from the plans and demonstrated explanations for each section.
While making estimation, you should not have to repeatedly find materials and labor cost. "CFE includes predefined settings which can be changed at your own level of price, time and materials utilized. The users have to get through all sections and update predefined values. You don’t have to update material or labor cost on a regular basis.
Estimator 1.1.1 supports iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch as well as iOS 8.0 or later.
Concrete Foundation Estimator 1.1.1 will cost $4.99 USD and can be access all through the world via the App Store in the Business category.
Tuesday, November 8, 2016
This construction video sheds light on how to set up stucco on a wood or any wall. Stucco stands for a long-lasting, alluring, and weather-resistant wall covering that can be utilized for coating wall surfaces in one or two thin layers toward an interior and exterior finish.In this video, it is shown that how plaster is done for coating wall surfaces or moulding into architectural decorations. The video will provide great assistance to resolve all your general home repair issues. Glass, concrete and stucco generally fail to stretch much, rather they break or crack with all movement and or vibrations.The video also focuses on how to deal with hairline cracking and repair stucco cracks which may happen due to high wind and rain.Besides, one can also get details on different tools and their application as well as numerous plastering tips.
Monday, November 7, 2016
This construction video is created for educational purpose.The tutorial will be a complement to the "Mechanics of Materials" course conducted at the Colorado School of Mines.By watching this construction video tutorial, one can learn how to create the design efficiently for simply supported steel beam.
Download Design of a Steel Beam in pdf
Saturday, November 5, 2016
If the gaps of footing are nearer, a raft foundation is recommended. Often, basements are created for particular purpose imposing to implement raft foundation. Usually, a raft foundation refers to a floating foundation that includes the ground completely to disperse load.
Pile foundation is mostly used if the spacing of footing is big & soil is costly in nature & it is not reasonable to excavate complete depth of this costly soil below the footing. If the spacing of column is big, raft foundation becomes expensive.
A raft foundation is ideal for feasibly inconstant soils, or soils which are extremely flexible. The raft system decreases the pressure on foundational soils. In some cases, a pile foundation is utilized in equivalent situations as a raft foundation. Piles should be set up intensely to spread to a strong strata of material, like gravel or bedrock.
A raft system will be perfect in some conditions where the depth of silt, sand or fine soil is very deep to develop a pile foundation. A spread footing is also ideal for feasibly unsteady soils. A spread footing needs excavating to a specific depth under the site grade, and considerably wider as compared the footprint of the house, and backfill with condensed, structural gravel fill. As soon as it is positioned, a standard concrete foundation is founded on the structural fill.
Friday, November 4, 2016
The bulking test must be carried on at the commencement of work, and afterward on every new batch of sand and after any material in the weather – rain or hot to make sure that the bulked volume of the sand remains unaltered.
When sand is supplied and is applied on the job, it often includes moisture that induces films of water to develop on the surface of the particles, fluffing them separately. This is known as bulking and for moisture content of approximately 5 or 6 percent it may be as much as 20, 30 or even 40 percent based on the grading of the sand. Bulking of sand is generally found in fine sand except for coarse sand.
Objective: The standard test for bulking is dependent on the circumstance that when damp sand bulks, the volume of saturated sand rises.
While applying fine aggregate (sand) to produce concrete, it is essential to find out the quantity of used sand that has been bulked. It is done with bulking test. This test is dependent on the fact that when damp sand bulks, the volume of saturated sand entirely immersed with water is identical though the sand is dry. So, it is possible to calculate the volume of saturated sand and the result is identical to that of dry sand.
Tool: To conduct the test, the following tools are necessary:
01. a straight sided container like a 1 kg jam jar, or a clean, empty cane
02. a steel measuring rule
03. a steel rod to support the sand
04. a second container to immerse it into, and some water.
Method: Initially, load the container about two-thirds filled with the sand to be tested. Drop it lightly, do not pack it.
Smooth the top of the sand and drive the steel rule down through the bottom, calculate its height. Assume it to be 15 cm.
So, the height of the damp is identified, bulked sand. Follow the next step for obtaining the height of the similar sand if soaked with water. It is now possible to compare the two. Unfilled the sand in the other container and ensure to check that none of it losts in the process, and fill half portion of the first container with water. Now place the sand back into the water, slowly, so that it is completely soaked.
Initially bring back about half the sand and rod it perfectly to eliminate any air. After that, include the rest and rod once more in the similar way and level off top. Now drive your rule through the sand as formerly and calculate the new height then it is found that it contains sunk clearly. Approximately, it now calculates 12.5 cm.
|Image Courtesy: gharpedia.com|
To read the complete article, go through the following link gharpedia.com
Friday, October 28, 2016
This construction video briefly describes how to estimates the stairs by following some easy to follow processes. By watching this construction video, you can learn the basics of making measurements. If you can learn how to estimate each part properly, you will be able to make an efficient stair construction and design. Estimation includes measurements, number of steps, steps sizes, slop ratio, angle of slope as well as length, height, depth of a stair.