Thursday, October 27, 2016
Forces operating on frame can cause three types of internal forces like bending moment, axial force and shear force. Therefore, it is possible to view frame member as combination of truss and beam member.
In a simple term, virtual work method can be defined as “Completed External work is identical to completed internal work”.
In frames, axial deformation is generally small corresponding to bending deformation and it is normal to disregard axial deformations. In this video, all the prospective deformations are considered.
Virtual Work facilitates to work out determinate and indeterminate structures as well as estimate their deflections. Therefore, it can obtain everything that all the other methods can attain collectively.
Using the virtual work equations to a frame structure is very easy like segregating the frame into a series of “beams” and measuring the virtual work for each section.
Besides, while assessing the deformation of a frame structure, it is essential to take into consideration both bending and axial internal force components.
Wednesday, October 26, 2016
A pile cap stands for a compact concrete material that is supported with concrete or timber piles driven into soft or unsettled ground to build up a perfect durable foundation. It generally develops part of the foundation of a building, specifically a multi-story building, structure or support base for heavy equipment. The load of the building is transmitted by the cast concrete pile cap into the piles. Raft is the same structure to a pile cap and it is a concrete foundation floor supported with soft soil that is accountable for subsidence.
Settle number of pile
Placement of pile cap and plane dimension
Pile cap elementary depth
Verify forces in piles
Verify punching shear
Design of moment
Details for reinforcement
Tuesday, October 25, 2016
This construction video provides step-by-step guidelines on estimation of Reinforcement with column and footing as per construction drawing. The video will be very useful for foundation design.
Reinforcement is essential for reinforced concrete members like footings, beams, columns, slabs, lintels etc. It is recommended to estimate reinforcement quantity before tendering phase for measuring cost of project or construction work roughly.
If working drawings and schedules for the reinforcement are unavailable, then it is required to create an estimate of the projected quantities. The quantities are usually defined according to the requirements of the Standard method of measurement of building works.
Monday, October 24, 2016
This video will provide you use of Excel Spread Sheet by a Quantity Surveyor for Material Stock Taking On-Site.wmv.
We provides accurate material takeoffs for some or all phases of Construction including elevation plan, concrete foundation, site concrete and cast-in-place concrete both for private and public biddings. We generate accurate quantity take-off from plan sheets on any structure in spite of size.
Thursday, October 20, 2016
RCC beams structural elements are formed to bear transverse external loads that produce bending moment, shear forces and in some cases torsion over their length. Concrete performs well in compression but feeble in tension. The role of Steel reinforcement is to combat tensile stresses in reinforced concrete beams.
Now-a-days deformed and twisted bars are extensively used in RCC work. Deformed or High yield strength deformed bars (HYSD) contains ribs on the surface. It improves the stability of bond by minimum 40% with regards to that of mild steel bar.
Fine detailing of reinforcements with exact drawings is necessary at the job site to optimize the construction procedure. Usually, there is a bar bending schedule contained with these drawing. The bar bending schedule defines the length and number, position and the shape of the bar.
The detailing of beams generally involves the followings :
i) Size and number (or spacing) of bars,
ii) Lap and curtailment (or bending) of bars,
iii) Development length of bars,
iv) Clear cover to the reinforcement and
v) Spacer and chair bars
Anchorage in steel bars is demonstrated with bends and hooks. Hooks do not include Twisted steel bars or deformed steel bars. The anchorage value of bend of bar is captured as 4 times the diameter of bar for each 450 bend that depends on maximum of 16 times the diameter of bar. To expand the length of bars, bars are lapped over one another. Lowest lap length is identical to development length. Development length for bars in various concrete mix is provided in tables 4.2 to 4.4 of SP34.
The value of K given above is subjected to type of steel applied that is provided below :-
The beams are categorized as:
- Based on shape: Rectangular, T, L, Circular etc.
- Based on supporting conditions: Simply supported, fixed, continuous and cantilever beams
- Based on reinforcement: Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced
Depth of the beam is obtained on the basis of flexural strength and satisfying the deflection criteria. Usually the ratio of span to depth ratio is retained as 10 to 15 and the depth to width ratio of rectangular is maintained in the range of 1.5 to 2.
Lowest cover in beams should be 25 mm or not below the larger diameter of bar for all steel reinforcement together with links. Minimal cover provided in Table 16 and 16A of IS456-2000 should be applied to meet the stability criteria.
To read the complete article, go through the following link theconstructor.org
Wednesday, October 19, 2016
Usually, it should be examined when the footings are arranged for concreting i.e. reinforcement is completely engrossed but it is recommended to examine it in two phase i.e.
01. Initially verify formwork prior to arrange reinforcement. This is very useful because finding out & rectifying formwork defect is very difficult once the reinforcement is organized in position.
02. Checking reinforcement – Therefore, it is suggested to initially verify the formwork prior to place or tie reinforcement.
01. Centering and shuttering / Formwork:
While starting the shuttering & centering / formwork for footing , abide by the following points.
- Verify the center lines / margin from boundary etc. from reference column/bench mark pillar, boundary distance from roads and obviously orientation regarding North.
- Make sure that the foundation is laid at a designed depth according to drawing.
- Size of formwork box should be according to drawing and it should be formed with correct materials.
- The formwork should have been dry and be refined cautiously prior to use mould release agent. The similar type of release agent should have been applied through on identical formwork materials.
- The surface of formwork should have been uniform and delicately coated with mould release agent.
- The mould release agent should not be contacted with reinforcement or the solidified concrete.
- The height of shuttering must be similar with the height of pedestal and joint should have been closed to avoid any leakage of cement pulp.
- Footing box should have been supported correctly in order that the placing of footing box should be unchanged throughout concreting.
- Centre of the footing is stamped with the nail on planks or footing box.
- Foundations shuttering should be strong in dry or even rainy situations or even when ground water exist.
- Prior to tying reinforcement, get the shuttering sanctioned by Engineer-in-charge or supervisor.
- Ensure that there is no earth collection on C.C. prior to tying reinforcement.
To read the complete article, go through the following link gharpedia.com
Tuesday, October 18, 2016
Countless types of Building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures. These groupings of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to state the materials and techniques used for building projects.
BTech Engineering has presented an useful information which will assist engineers in construction worksite for determining the quality of construction materials. Construction Materials and Quality Control that used in construction of buildings like First class bricks quality, properties of sand, cements quality much more materials aggregates, stones, steel and so on.
Study the following video attentively: