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Saturday, April 21, 2018

Waterproofing of Concrete, Walls and Floors

Construction of any building is not easy and it doesn’t end after completing the building; as there are so many other little things that need to look after before making a building.

One of those is waterproofing the building, a building must be guarded from water, heat, heavy sunrays and dust; if any of them is not properly followed during the construction then the building is not safe actually. Waterproofing is done at the time of concrete and sometimes a badly made concrete can’t guard the building from water for the discrimination of water by any admixtures.

A concrete is called waterproof when a dense concrete is made with right amount of total non-porous material and low water ratio; which will create a minimum of air blanks. As all concretes are porous so these holes need to be reduced for making the concrete so far tight to water.

It is sometime good to use a little extreme proportion of fines to make a good concrete; also a little increment in cement content over normal concrete is also beneficial as more cement needs less water for the same amount of work.

This thing need to describe a little more, here some methods is discussed for waterproofing:

a) Concrete and masonry grains are made waterproof with the use of three substitute layers of alum and soap mixtures, at first a hot alum solution is prepared with hot water, applied and worked in with a firm brush after pouring the hot soap mixture. The solutions are used with a gap of about 24 hours between the alternate coats; soap mixtures act like lubricants and also form difficult fillers by response with cement and may be applied while the concrete remains green.

b) When a fully hydrated white lime is added with the following mixtures it gives more proof from water; this mixture acts good as the lime paste absorbs about double the volume of paste when it mixed with equal weight of cement. It is also very effective in faulty filing but the mixture should be of thick concrete; the hydrated lime actually grows ability of work that gives a slight decrease in water content and reduces penetrability. Concrete must be made rich where the excess cement should be 15-20% over sand and 20% excess mortar over rough aggregate; a ratio mixture of 1:1.5:3 with water/cement ratio of about 0.40 will make the concrete really water-proof.

c) After the practicable work, the form-work has to be removed and the concrete exterior should be rubbed smooth and washed. To fill the holes, a mixture of cement and sand in the ratio of 1:1.5 with water-proofing compound is applied over the whole exterior without leaving any material on the concrete face.

d) Work on concrete floors are done at the time of cementing with dry cement which is sprayed over the exterior and worked in with a steel trowel on the first set of the concrete.

e) The method of water-proofing on the surfaces depend on the quality of concrete and the smallest holes can be filled with slit or fine clay, boiled linseed oil, paraffin or varnish then brushed over the exterior after the concrete has dried well. Nearly two or three layers are applied and dried before the next application; one or two layer of coal tar makes the exterior waterproof, concrete must be dry and free of dust and a thin bituminous coat can also be given for more firmness.

f) Generally Bituminous Putties are laid on horizontal exteriors and also mopped on vertical exteriors when they are either hot or cold.

g) Proprietary compounds like Pudlo, Medusa etc. are used as per the instructions of manufacturers. Insert materials which are of the finest particles can be used to dense the concrete especially when the total is in fines.

h) Silicate or soda also works well in water-proofing; whereas the mixture of 1 kg of washing soda and water will make a cement mortar water-proof.

For more information, go through the following construction article theconstructioncivil.org

Waterproofing of Concrete, Walls and Floors

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, April 20, 2018

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

Steel buildings are mostly recognized since they are inexpensive as well as they can be mass produced and adapted from prevailing standards to fulfill various purposes.

The uses of steel building are found in different sectors like agricultural to commercial.

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL BUILDINGS

1. They are cost effective as compared to other building materials since you don’t have to appoint the engineers and architects for constructing the building. The steel buildings can be easily sustained and can be mass produced. They are one of the affordable types of building obtainable at this level.

2. Steel buildings are perfect for almost any space, specifically as they fulfil the needs for various types of single story buildings. They are also greatly ecological, specifically when provided with thermal accessories – of which several types are well-suited – for increased energy efficiency.

3. They can be sustained efficiently. In wooden buildings, or any type of structure which are built with organic material, there is chance for mould and mildew infestations and steel buildings are 100% eco-friendly so can either be easily reprocessed.

4. Steel buildings are utilized for different purposes: agricultural, storage, offices, temporary venues etc. They can be built up easily secure, both from damage and outside access, since steel (not like wood) will not distort and fastenings will persist protected in due course of time.

5. Steel buildings can be constructed easily and maintainable by their users, and be associated with a variety of supplementary features which can be acquired at little additional cost from the manufacturer. These extra features contain mezzanine options, green energy solutions, additional access doors and colors.

6. Steel buildings are designed for both permanence and impermanence that means they can be utilized for stockpile throughout project accomplishment or for long term stockpile of machinery or goods. Besides, the steel building are environment friendly as they can be easily set up with solar panels.

The benefits of steel buildings in construction industries

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Variations among pier, abutment and column

This construction video tutorial sheds light on the variations among pier, abutment and column. It is a very important topic for civil engineering students.

Definition of Pier: Normally, pier stands for the types of column which are situated among the two abutments in the bridge to accommodate the load of super structure of the bridge.

It transmits the load of vehicles, slab and longitudinal and cross beams to the foundation.

Definition of Abutment: It is mainly applied at the ends of the bridge to keep hold of the embankment as well as bear the vertical and horizontal loads for the bridge super structure to the foundation. Abutments are normally built up from concrete to combat the heavy load of the vehicles.

Abutment and pier have to resist wind and seismic load other than the load transmitted to it from beams and are known as substructure of bridge.

Definition of column: In Civil Engineering term, the column refers to a vertical member that bears the compressive load as well as transmits the load from slab and beams to the Foundation or Footing.

Variations among Pier and Abutment

Piers belong to the internal supports of the bridge.

Abutments belong to the ends supports of the bridge.

Abutment is developed in the end of bridge to support vertical and lateral moments, whereas, if we have a bridge containing multi spans, then, pier is arranged in the end of each span to support the same forces and moments.

More than two piers can be used in bridge construction.

The numbers of abutments are just two in the bridge at the ends.

Piers are built up among the abutments.

Abutments are the external support of the bridge.

To get more details go through the following video tutorial.



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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Monday, April 16, 2018

The role of water in concrete

Water Cement Ratio signifies the ratio among the weight of water to the weight of cement applied in concrete mix.

Generally, water cement ratio remains under 0.4 to 0.6 with adherence to IS Code 10262 (2009) for nominal mix (M10, M15 …. M25)

The strength of concrete is directly impacted by the water cement ratio. It enhances the strength if employed in perfect ratio and if the ratio is improper, the strength will be reduced.

The importance of Water in Concrete

Concrete refers to a macro content. It comprises of micro constituents like cement, sand, fine aggregate & Coarse aggregate. With the purpose of obtaining high strength concrete to resist the desired compressive strength, it is required to set exact ratio of admixture to unite these materials.

The role of water is important here to accelerate this chemical process by adding 23%-25% of the cement volume. It produces 15% of water cement paste also called gel to fill the voids in the concrete.

Impact of too much water in concrete: If additional water is added more than the permissible limit of 23%, the strength of concrete will be significantly affected.

If the task of adding water is continued to improve the workability then the concrete contains lots of fluid materials where the aggregates will settle down. As soon as the water is evaporated it puts down lots of voids in concrete which influences the concrete strength.

But if the guidelines are followed to retain the strength of the concrete then it will change the concrete workability and makes it difficult to manage and place them.

Workability signifies the capacity of concrete to manage, convey and place devoid of any segregation. The concrete becomes perfectly workable if it can be easily dealt with, placed and transported devoid of any segregation at the time of being placed in construction site.


For this purpose, plasticisers & superplasticizers are utilized to enhance the workability by keeping the W/C Ratio unchanged.
In order to know how to work out water cement ratio, go through the following construction article www.civilology.com
The role of water in concrete

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Friday, April 13, 2018

The detailed method of highway construction

By making extensive surveys and subgrade groundwork, highway construction is normally conducted. The methods and technology for constructing highways are upgraded in due course of time and turns to be more advanced.

The improvement in technology has increased the grade of skill sets essential for dealing with highway construction projects.

This skill differs from project to project, on the basis of different factors like the project’s complications and type, the contrasts among new construction and reconstruction, and variations among urban region and rural region projects.

There exist various components of highway construction which are segregated into technical and commercial components of the system. Given below, some illustrations of them:

Technical Components -

a. Materials
b. Material quality
c. Installation systems
d. Traffic


Commercial Components -

a. Contract understanding
b. Ecological characteristics
c. Political characteristics
d. Legal characteristics
e. Public interests


Generally, construction starts at the lowermost elevation of the site, in spite of the project type, and moves upward. After evaluation of the geotechnical specifications of the project, the following information is provided:

Present ground conditions -

a. Necessary apparatus for excavation, grading, and material transportation to and from the site
b. Characteristics of materials to be excavated
c. Necessity of dewatering for below-grade work

d. Necessity of shoring for excavation protection
e. The quantities of water for compaction and dust control


The detailed method of highway construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Thursday, April 12, 2018

Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India

QTO or Quantity take-offs is a thorough estimation of materials and labors which are required to complete any construction project.

These QTOs are expanded by an estimator in the preconstruction time and the estimation is used to format a bid on the range of construction.

Job Description: It is known to all that most of the engineering and construction projects come with large-scale actions and they need the investments of large amount of money. Projects are often get form some clients or contractors who want the highest quality in the project with a minimal cost that’s why they engage people called quantity surveyors. So basically a quantity surveyor has to do the job of a financial manager for a large engineering project who is charged with the maximum value of the project for his/her client to give a right balance of cost and quality.

When a quantity surveyor is involved in a project, he/she has to work with clients and their contacts from the start of the project during the process of the contract and engaging in opening cost analysis. From the start to end of a project, a quantity surveyor has to keep a continuous observation over the whole process and finds way for more improvement in the investment and project by producing daily profitability reports and keeping all the updates. Besides that, quantity surveyors also give advice and support for different tasks pursuing completion of the project for further changes.

Qualification: A quantity surveyor should have a college degree with significance in engineering and/or finance. So candidates must have to pursue official certificate and those who are not form a technical surveying will not be eligible so necessary education and experience is needed.

Wages: A Quantity Surveyor with the skills of Autodesk Quantity Takeoff can get the average payment of Rs. 418829 per year and the job needs a strong experience though this job generally don’t have more than 20 years’ experience. Salary could be Rs. 201164 – Rs. 833129 and bonus will vary that can be up to Rs. 95449 and with that there is also be the profit sharing, so it is clear that a quantity surveyor can get a good salary.

Quantity Surveyor Tasks:
• A quantity surveyor has to help in the credentials of commercial risks and chances and execute value engineering exercises when it is needed.
• He/she has to make and control material provision schedules.
• A quantity surveyor has to stimulate and develop a culture of contract awareness and assure about the fulfillment of contracts by stiffly maintaining records, contractual notifications, changing control etc.
• Also need to ready internal value reports for upper management and other departments.
More than that, they can get jobs in their cities or their nearby cities so start finding.
Apply Online www.payscale.com
Quantity Surveyor with Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Skills Salary in India
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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Testing of Concrete masonry Blocks

Concrete masonry bricks are very useful in the rural areas as it is cheap, easily found and can form less strong buildings, the compressive strength of the bricks should be tested.

And in urban areas these kinds of buildings may present a combination of both office and houses or grocery stores and houses or offices and retail stores.

Concrete can be changed into formed masonry units like Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks in right size to use for load and non-load bearing units for fencings or wallings. These concrete blocks are used more in the regions where soil bricks are costly, have less strength and not available all the time. As per the structural needs of masonry unit, the concrete mixes can be arranged using available ingredients or if not be suitable then with in the most economical distance.

Hollow concrete blocks are used for normal masonry when reinforced is used and it should not be leaner than 1 part cement of 8 parts room dry sand by volume. Compressive strength of concrete blocks or concrete masonry units is important to know the fitness of these in construction works for different reasons. Concrete masonry blocks are normally made of cement, amount and water which are usually comes in rectangular shape used in construction of masonry structure.

Patterns

20 full sized units shall be counted for length, wide and height and the center units shall be calculated for least thickness of face, shells and webs.

The minimal dimensions of concrete masonry block differ in three things such as:

  • Length: 400/500/600mm
  • Width: 200/100mm
  • Height: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 or 300mm.

Tests on Concrete Masonry Block Units

various tests are done on concrete masonry unit to check all the requirements, but among them three most applied tests are discussed in this article. The blocks of same mix shall be taken and classified to these following tests:

  • Dimension measurement for all types of blocks
In this step all the blocks should be verified and calculated by the length, width and height with steel scale. After checking if the block found hollow, then the thickness of the web and face shell are calculated with caliper ruler, next a report need to be prepared included average length, width and height of block and with least face shell and web thickness using recorded dimensions.

  • Density of the concrete masonry blocks (3 blocks)
At first the block has to be heated in the oven to 100°c, then the heated block need to be cooled in the room temperature. Next measure the dimensions of block to find out the volume and weight of it, the density of the block is calculated form a calculation and the standard density of 3 blocks will be the final block density. The formula is: mass/volume (kg/m3 )

  • Compressive Strength tests
the average compressive strength of concrete masonry block is calculated by taking 8 blocks and all of them should be tested with in 3days after gathered in lab where the age of the blocks should be 28 days. The compressive strength is calculated in the Compressive

Strength Testing machine which has tow steel bearing blocks, one is in fixed position on which the masonry unit is kept and the other movable one can transfer the load to the masonry unit while applying. When the masonry unit’s bearing area is more than the steel blocks’ bearing area some different steel plates will be used. Those plates are organized on steel blocks in a way that the centre of masonry unit agreed with the center of thrust of blocks, bearing area units are completed with the Sulphur and granular materials coating. Then the unit in testing machine is placed and one-half of the expected highest loads are followed at a minimum rate while the rest is applied in not less than 2 minutes. Te load of masonry unit fails and the highest load is divided by basic sectional area of unit will give the compressive strength of block. By applying the same method, find out the rest 7 blocks’ compressive strength and then calculate the average strength of the 8 blocks which will be the final compressive strength of concrete masonry unit.


Some Commercial Building techniques that changing Construction

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Published By
Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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