## Saturday, February 17, 2018

### How to calculate volume and area of various complicated geometric shapes

In this construction video tutorial, you will be familiar with various formulas which are essential to measure the area and volume of various complicated geometric shapes.

These complicated shapes range from Trapezoidal pyramid, Right circular cone, Rumbas, Trapezium, Polygon, Circle, Rectangle, Square etc.

Geometry belongs to a section of mathematics that takes care of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. It provides a practical means of managing lengths, area and volumes efficiently.

Geometry is segregated into two dissimilar types: Plane Geometry and Solid Geometry. The Plane Geometry is suitable for various shapes like circles, triangles, rectangles, square and more. On the other hand, solid geometry is associated with working out the length, perimeter, area and volume of different geometric figures and shapes. Besides, they are utilized to measure the arc length and radius etc.

Geometry Formula is useful for making calculation of the length, perimeter, area and volume of different geometric shapes and figures. There exist several geometric formulas, which are associated with height, width, length, radius, perimeter, area, surface area or volume and much more.

Given below, an extensive lists of different types of basic geometry formulas :-

Perimeter of a Square=P=4a
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a square

Perimeter of a Rectangle = P = 2(l+b)
Here, l denotes Length and b denotes Breadth

Area of a Square=A=a2
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a square

Area of a Rectangle=A=l×b
Here, l denotes Length and b denotes Breadth

Area of a Triangle=A=b×h2
Here, b denotes base of the triangle and h denotes height of the triangle

Area of a Trapezoid=A=(b1+b2)h2
Where, b1 & b2 belong to the bases of the Trapezoid ; h = height of the Trapezoid

Area of a Circle=A=π×r2
Circumference of a Circle=A=2πr
Here, r denotes Radius of the Circle

Surface Area of a Cube=S=6a2
Here, a denotes length of the sides of a Cube

Surface Area of a Cylinder=S=2πrh
Volume of a Cylinder=V=πr2h
Here, r denotes Radius of the base of the Cylinder and h denotes Height of the Cylinder

To learn the detail calculation process, go through the following construction video tutorial.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, February 16, 2018

### What are the exact room sizes, basic needs and vastu position of any Indian residential building?

To sustain a convenient and healthful life, the room space in the house should be used in an efficient manner. So, you should have sufficient knowledge on lowest room size, basic needs and exact position of various rooms in the conventional Indian residential building which are based on day-to-day activities in the household, sun’s location, privacy and grouping of rooms for smooth access and Vastu Sastra preference for house.

In this article, you will get all the details of the above mentioned topics :-

Living Room: Living room is located in the entrance of the house. It has direct connectivity with other rooms like kitchen, bedroom, staircase and bathroom.

In this place all the family members frequently meet. So, there must be adequate natural lighting and air circulation via large windows. The facing of windows should be in east and north direction to arrange sufficient lighting and ventilation.

Least room size for living room= 16 sq.m with 3m on one side.

Position, direction for living room with adherence to Vastu Sastra = North-East (Eshanya = Direction of health, power and prosperity)

Bed Room: Bed room is treated as the private rooms for family members where they perform different activities. Master bedrooms involve attached bathroom and toilet. Privacy is a great concern for this room. These rooms are frequently utilized in the night-time and early morning hours and so their facing should be in south direction or North-East direction to experience direct sunlight and heat in the early morning hours.

Least room size of bedrooms= 12 sq.m

Position, direction for Bedroom as per Vastu Sastra = South direction (Dhakshin Yama = Direction of health, happiness, growth and female love). Keep away from North-West direction.

Also, sleep with head facing south direction because earth magnetic influence.

Kitchen: Kitchen should be built up on the North-East or South-East direction with windows facing East. Modern kitchen should be constructed with shelves, loft, sink, storage and exhaust. It should be open and smoothly approachable to the living room and dining area to track the activities as well as keep in contact with other members in dining.

Least room size for kitchen = 8 sq.m

Position, direction for Kitchen with adherence to Vastu Sastra = South-East direction with cooking faces east (Agneya or Agni = Direction of health)

Agni mulai as per vastu sastram of tamilnadu
Next option is North-West direction(Vayavya or Vayu)
or finally North-East Direction (Eshanya)
Staircase
Required area of the staircase is based on the type and position of the staircase.
Least width of steps = 1 m
Landing size = 1.2 m
Rise = 150 to 180 mm

Position, direction for staircase as per Vastu Sastra = South or South-West direction.

To get more information on the above topics, go through the following construction article civilrnd.com

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Thursday, February 15, 2018

### Structural Design – Minimum Standard

Thumb rules for Structural Design of RCC Structures: It is advisable to use superior structural design software like ETabs or Staad Pro for making the design of structures. There exist different types of variables in making the design of a structure and therefore no minimum standards are perfect.

This guide is very helpful for making the design of very small structures, as for instance up to G+1 floors. It is recommended to apply good software for structural designer instead of manual methods. Manual method is only applicable for checks.

Real design is accomplished by applying the computers, through very advanced design concepts like pushover analysis, seismic analysis, wind loads simulation and various advanced processes.

Design of RCC Structural Components: This construction article sheds light on the minimum standards that should be undertaken for making the design of RCC structural components of a structure, like columns, beams, slab and foundation. Besides, the explanation is also provided for the minimum safe standards for the reinforcing bars which should be employed for the design of the above mentioned Structural Components.

Minimum cross-sectional dimension for a Column is 9”x 9” (225MM x 225MM). But to get rid of slenderness issues, a rectangular column with dimension 9″x 12″ (225 MM x 300 MM) should be designed for maintaining safety.

It is recommended to utilize M20 grade concrete for construction as per IS 456:2000 standard. The minimum steel required in a 9″ x 9″ column is 4 bars of 12 MM containing stirrups of 8 MM steel rings at a gapping of 150 MM centre to centre.

In a 9″ x 12″ column, two more bars should be included to easily manage the total to 6 bars having 12 MM diameter. This design is trustworthy for up to G+1 floors.

Minimum RCC beam size should not be under 9″x 9″(225MM X 225MM), with an extra slab thickness of 125 MM. It will be perfect to apply a minimum of 4 bars, with 2 bars having 12 MM thickness in the bottom of the beam, and 2 bars having 10 MM at the top of the beam.

A concrete cover having 40 MM dimension should be used. Besides, M20 grade of concrete (1 part cement : 1.5 parts sand : 3 parts aggregate : 0.5 parts water) should also be used.

Minimum thickness of RCC slab should be 5″ (125MM) as a slab may comprise of electrical pipes which are implanted into them with 0.5″ dimension or more for internal wiring to significantly decreases slab depths at specific places. It leads to cracking, weakening and water leakage throughout rains. Therefore, a minimum thickness of 5″ should have been retained.

Minimum size of foundation for a single storey of G+1 building should be 1m x 1m, where safe bearing strength of soil is 30 tonnes per square meter, and the approaching load on the column does not surpass 30 tonnes. Minimum depth of footing should be 4′underneath ground level. It is suggested to go to depths up to had strata.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Wednesday, February 14, 2018

### The Basic Requirements of Formwork

Formwork is a concrete construction that is used as either short or permanent molds into which fresh concrete or similar kind of materials are gushed to make it harden. The different types of concrete formwork construction depend on the material and the kind of structural element. They are given various names as per the type of structural member construction like slab framework, beam framework, column framework etc. to use in beams and columns.

The harden process requires time and includes an expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or more than that; the temporary design structures are made of economic expenditure.

While the removing process of the framework is known as stripping that can also be used later; the unusable are called panel forms and the non-useable are called stationary forms. The most commonly used material for formwork is Timber.

2. Engineering Formwork System
3. Re-usable plastic formwork
4. Permanent Insulated Formwork systems
5. Stay-In-Place structural formwork systems
6. Flexible formwork

Requirements of Formwork: It is stated above that framework varies as per material and material is the main ingredient for every framework, but for any kind of chosen material the three common principles of quality, safety and economy should be the same. While the quality of material ensures safety and also considerably helps to achieve the economy; any kind of failure in framework can cause of the loss of life and tragic financial loss. To avoid the loss the following guidelines should be followed from start to framing materials and for the associated components:

1. Strength: The strength of material must be sufficient to strong the forces expected and this is the important for both the structural design and safety aspect.
2. Stiffness: the structural movement under load should be small and sure; these deformities and separations are the necessary part of the whole deviations in the formed concrete surface. While planning the formwork system, a designer must take decisions upon the total acceptable variations and the extend workmanship errors and structural deformity. The material stiffness and the workmanship accuracy must be stable to ensure the stability of the total deviations to keep the tolerances.

3. Impact Resistance: The forms are made to make sure that the damaged form that is useless does not make falling debris and to make sure this important safety quality, materials displaying ductile failure are far above than those fail in a hasty and brittle manner.
4. Durability: The framework must be durable either it will affect the economy and the achievement quality concrete product at every reuse of the formwork; formwork is always pre made and used out in the open. When the matter of re-uses came the thing is dependable on its reaction of materials and components with weather and the framing, components and formface materials should be strong in any environment. Material durability is important for both the achievement of good quality concrete surface finishes and safe formwork structures.

5. Weight: While the assembling process in formwork, both the members and components are shifted into position by hand that will be applicable after the complete framework which are heavy and need a crane to do the shifting work. So the framing members, formwork components and formface materials must be keep in size so that they must be carried and lifted by the worker or the crane etc.
6. Accuracy: Every construction process is dependable on a lot of money so the work of lifting and cutting of materials must be done within a minimum amount of money and consistency of size of materials, plywood sheets and framing members is very important.
7. Compatibility: The framework materials should be fitted with either the fluid concrete or the strong concrete and at the formface, the elements of the form materials must not react with the wet cement or concrete.
8. Insulation: Some materials react with the environment if it’s become extra hot or cold, so the protection for the materials is must; if the mix becomes frozen and the chemical bondage damages then the concrete has to be placed at low temperatures, heat the mixing water etc. The placing of the fluid concrete for all forms can cause some damage with the crushed rock aggregate and the proper steps has to be taken to stop it.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Tuesday, February 13, 2018

### Some handy tips to find out the compressive strength of mortar

It is advisable to apply 2 inch or 50mm cubes as stated by ASTM C109 / C109M – Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars to define the compressive strength of mortar.

Mortar is a formed by amalgamating cement, sand mixed with water. Application of mortar is found in masonry works like brick masonry and stone masonry and for plastering walls, columns etc.

Mostly utilized mix ratio of mortar in masonry works range from 1:3, 1:4 and 1:6 of cement to sand ratio. For vital masonry structures like brick walls, 1:3 ratio is applied.

Why Compressive Strength Test of Mortar is Important?

Usually masonry structures are built up as load bearing. As for instance, load bearing walls, load bearing masonry columns etc. are developed for residential and other masonry buildings. For a masonry buildings, foundations are also built up with brick masonry.

Towards a load bearing masonry construction, vital fact is to recognize the compressive strength requirement of masonry to resist the load that operates on it. A masonry wall is likely to deal with compressive loads from floors over it and should contain adequate strength to resist it. Therefore, masonry compressive strength should have been adequate to support the loads on wall.

How to find out the Compressive Strength of Mortar

To determine the compressive strength of standard cement sand mortar cubes, the following apparatus and methods of the test are undertaken :-

Apparatus: 7.06cm cubes moulds (50cm2 face area), apparatus for measuring and blending mortar, vibrator, compression testing machine etc.

Method for checking Compressive Strength of Mortar
Choose 200gm of cement and 600gm of standard sand in the mix ratio 1:3 by weight) in a pan.

The standard sand is made of quartz, of light, gray or whitish variety and does not contain silt. The sand grains is like angular, the shape of grains is similar to the spherical form, extended and flattened grains are found in very small quantities.

Standard sand passes across 2 mm IS sieve and is kept on 90 microns IS sieve with the particle size distribution as given below.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Monday, February 12, 2018

### Construction Project Scheduling

It is generally a mechanism for communicating about the tasks has to do and the organizational resources that will be assigned to complete all those tasks in the given time.
In simple words, a project schedule is a kind of document that gathers all the important works so that project can be delivered on time. A project is a collection of many tasks where each task has a fixed start and end to complete it in time though people have different schedules and their every detail need to be documented in order to successfully plan those tasks.
In past time, the project schedules were printed on calendars on a shared wall in the water-cooler room or shared spreadsheets via email buy in today’s scenario, most of the teams use online project scheduling tools.
As in the current scenario, most of the projects have many moving parts and they are continuously changing; so project scheduling software automatically upgrades tasks which are dependable and can’t completed on time. Besides that, it also provides automated email alerts so that team members can be aware about their scheduled tasks’ time and manager will know when someone’s availability has changed.
Methods to schedule a project: The following steps will discuss how a project is scheduled -
• Specifying Activities: there are lot of activities in every project and at first the important ones need to be listed, here a Work Breakdown Structure or WBS and a deliverable diagram will help to start these activities and to arrange them by projecting the necessary tasks to fulfill them in a right order.
• Make the estimates: After having the defined activities and dividing them into tasks, the project manager has to decide the time and effort to complete them in order to calculate the right schedule.
• Design dependencies: Tasks should be only started after completing the existed ones and it is the task dependency that is reflected in the schedule through these linked tasks. So make sure that the important ones should be on the top of the schedule to complete the project on time.
• Assign resources: At last, the project manager has to finalize the planned schedule as per the needed resources to complete those tasks on time. Make a team; assign them in the project so that all the tasks will be completed together on time.
Maintaining the schedule after the project is started: After scheduling every little object in a project, they need to be manually punched into an Excel Spreadsheet and any project management software can automate much of the process for the manager. There are some programs on the market that are useful for easy scheduling duties and while a project; the managers often need a tool that can fit with the variety of scheduling issues that need to track.
• Scheduling tasks: The project manager has to know about smart software that help to give enough flexibility for controlling many responsibilities attached with every tasks in the project. He can either add tasks and dates into the Gantt chart to keep a visual image of each task’s duration and if the dates change, they can be automated by simple drag and drop with the changes. The email notifications are a great way to keep the track of completing task and the update will be done automatically.
• Scheduling people: To complete all the tasks on time a project manager should assemble all the tasks at first and assemble a team which must be scheduled as per the task list to manage the project. A manager should be aware that team members may take holidays, personal vacation or days and he should schedule the project’s task list so that other team members can pick up the slow in their absence so that the schedule will not suffer. He can keep the task scheduling view on the Gantt chart with resource and workload scheduling features.
• Scheduling projects: Making a project dashboard will help to manage the tasks to be completed in a clean and easy way without any interruption or problems, in addition that he can also use the graphs and charts the dashboard that generate to drill down deeper and customize the results to provide the right information on the right time.

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Rajib Dey
www.constructioncost.co
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## Friday, February 9, 2018

### Common causes of downfalls of Dam Structures

A dam is a block across flowing water that opposes, directs or slows down the flow, often creating a store, lake or captivities. Most dams have a section named a spillway or weir over or through which the water passes and have some hydroelectric power generation systems installed.

Dams are like ‘installations containing dangerous forces’ due to the huge impact of a possible destruction on the normal population and the environment.

Generally dam failures are happen rarely but can do huge damage and loss of life, it happens as the dam structures are constrained to horizontal loading from the water head behind. The pressure comes from the water to the dam materials such as the adjoining geology and size of the reservoir which are very new in the case of dam structures.

Common reasons of downfalls of Dam Structures: The most known reason of the downfall of the dam structures is overtopping which is happen either for exceeding that is something concerned with the design of the spillway.
• Overtopping: It is happen when water slopping over the top of a dam and become a reason of dam failure. The two major factors of the overtopping failure are one id created due to surface elevation exceeds the total structural elevation profile and the other one is the over washes of the waves.
• Foundation defects and Slope instability: Foundation defects with settlement and slope instability causes most of the dam failures.
• Cracking: happens by the movements like the natural setting of a dam.
• Water Violating.
• Piping.
• Subsidence and the movement of the foundation.
• Uplift form the ground and sliding of the structure.
• Variation in temperature.
• Dynamic blasting in the nearby areas.